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ANT Chpt 3

Anatomy Chapter 3

QuestionAnswer
What is a passive process in which a substance moves due to kinetic energy? Diffusion
What is is called when substances move from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration? Diffusion
What is the net movement of water molecules through a selectively permeable membrane from an area of higher water concentration to an area of low water concentration until equilibrium is reached? Osmosis
"Hyper" means? Alot
"Hypo" means? a little
1 inch = ___cm? 2.5
10 meters = ___ cm? 1
What is Hypertonic solution? Higher concentration of solutes
What is Hypotonic solution? Lower concentration of solutes
What is an Isotonic solution? A solution that maintain normal shape and volume
What does Hemolysis mean? The rupture of red blood cells. Hemo=iron;lyis=to break
What does Crenation mean? The shrinkage of red blood cells.
What is the flow of a liquid through a filter due to hydrostatic pressure? Filtration
What is a solution? The combination of a solvent(liquid) and solute(material)
What is a solute? The material used in a solution
If the extracellular fluid contains a greater concentration of solutes than the cytosol of the cell, the extracellular fluid is said to be? Hypertonic
The proteins found in the plasma membrane are primarily? glycoproteins
(T/F)The proteins found in the plasma membrane allow the passage of many substances into and out of the cell. TRUE
(T/F)The proteins found in the plasma membrane allow cells to recognize other cells. TRUE
(T/F)The proteins found int eh plasma membrane help anchor cells to each other. TRUE
To enter many body cells, glucose must bind to a specific membrane carrier protein, which assists glucose to cross the membrane without using ATP. This type of movement is known as? Facilitated Diffusion
A red blood cell placed in a hypotonic solution undergoes? hemolysis
Many white blood cells engulf bacteria through? Phagocytosis
What is the process by which phagocytes ingest and destroy microbes cell debris, and other foreign matter? Phagocytosis
Which organelles are involved in the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide int he liver? Peroxisomes
What process requires ATP? active transport
Nicotine in cigarette smoke interferes with the ability of cells to rid the breathing passageways of debris. Which organelles are "paralyzed" by nicotine? cilia
Many proteins found in the plasma membrane are formed by the ___ and packaged by the ___? ribosomes, Golgi complex
Where is cellular movement done? cytoskeleton
Where is selective permeability done at? plasma membrane
What organelle does protein synthesis? ribosomes
What organelle provides lipid synthesis, detoxification? smooth ER
What organelle packages proteins? Golgi complex
What organelle provides ATP production? mitochondria
What digests bacteria and worn-out organelles? lysosomes
What organelle forms mitotic spindles? centrosome
If the smooth ER were destroyed, a cell would not be able to? synthesis fatty acids and steroids.
Water moves into and out of red blood cells through? osmosis
A cell undergoing mitosis goes through the following stages in which sequence? prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
Transcription involves copying information contained in DNA to mRNA
If a DNA strand has a nitrogenous base sequence TACGA, then the sequence of bases on the corresponding mRNA would be AUGCU
Nuclear envelope (membrane) and nucleoli reappear is known as what phase? telephase
Centromeres of the chromatid pairsline up in the center of the mitotic spindle is known as what phase? metaphase
DNA replicates during what phase? interphase
Cleavage furrow splits cells into two identical cells during what phase? cytokinesis
Chromosomes move toward opposite poles of the cell during what phase? anaphase
Chromatids are attached at centromeres; mitotic spindle forms during what phase? prophase
In what phase is a cell highly active and growing? interphase
Movement of materials into and out of the nucleus is controlled by the? nuclear pores
The basic unit of structure and function of any living organism is the ___. cell
Crenation of a cell may occur when it is placed in a(n) ___ solution. hypertonic
Phagocytic vesicles form by inward folding of the ___. plasma membrane
Which of the following best describes the structural arrangement of the plasma membrane? a bilayer of phospholipid molecules in which protein molecules are embedded
Ribosomes are assembled in the ___. nucleoli
Which of the following is a function of ribosomes in a rough ER? synthesize proteins
Which of the following fluids is present inside of cells? intracellular fluid (ICF)
Mitochondria are called the “power-houses” of the cell because their main function is ___. ATP synthesis
Cellular materials are packaged for secretion by which of the following? Golgi complex
If the concentration of glucose in the fluid outside a cell is lower than the concentration inside, water will tend to enter the cell by osmosis.
Which of the following processes does NOT require use of cellular energy? facilitated diffusion
Glucose crosses the cell membrane by ___. facilitated diffusion
Which of the following is NOT a membrane-bound organelle? ribosome
Which of the following functions as cell identity markers, receptors, and enzymes? membrane proteins
The movement of water across a semi-permeable membrane is ___. osmosis
Peripheral proteins are located on the inner and outer surfaces of the ___. plasma membrane
Which of the following account for the movement of organelles, the migration of chromosomes during cell division, and the structure and function of cilia and flagella? microtubules
Channels (pores) and transporters in the plasma membrane are composed of ___. integral proteins
Most of the molecules that make up the plasma membrane are ___. phospholipids and proteins
The phospholipid tails in the plasma membrane point toward each other.
DNA is replicated during ___. interphase
Which of the following allows charged ions and molecules to pass across the plasma membrane? channel proteins
Under normal conditions, the primary cations in the cytosol of cells are ___. potassium (K+) ions
A selectively permeable sealed bag containing a 10% sucrose solution is placed into a beaker containing pure water. At equilibrium, the number of water molecules leaving and entering the bag is equal.
A carrier protein moves sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+) ions across the plasma membrane by changing shape.
The function of ATP in the operation of the sodium-potassium (Na+/K+) pump is to add a phosphate to the pump protein, thereby changing its shape.
In exocytosis, ___ unite with the cell membrane and release their contents to the outside of the cell. secretory vesicles
Chemically, the cytosol is 75-90% ___. water
Some regions of endoplasmic reticulum appear rough because of ribosomes attached to their surfaces.
In mitochondria the enzymes that carry out the reactions of cellular respiration are located on the inner folds, called cristae, and within the matrix located in the central cavity.
All of the following are thought to contribute to aging of the cell except: antioxidants
Which of the following is a process by which malignant cells increase their own vascular supply? angiogenesis
Cancer-causing genes are known as: oncogenes
Numerous short projections from the surface of cells of the respiratory tract are called ___. cilia
What event begins the process of translation? The mRNA attaches to the small ribosomal subunit.
The process of translation terminates when the ribosome reaches the stop codon.
Somatic cell division involves the nuclear division called ___. mitosis
During interphase, DNA replicates and growth and metabolism occur.
When cytokinesis is complete, ___ begins. interphase
A noncancerous growth of cells to produce an excess of tissue is called a ___. benign tumor
A carcinogen is a(n) ___. chemical agent or radiation that causes cancer
In the process of aging, tissues stiffen and lose their elasticity because irreversible cross-links form between adjacent protein molecules.
Substances in our diet, such as vitamin E, vitamin C, beta carotene, and selenium, may slow the process of aging by inhibiting free radical formation.
Ribosomes are assembled in which of the following? nucleoli
Which of the following directly regulates the movement of materials into and out of a cell? plasma membrane
Fatty acids and steroids (e.g., estrogen and testosterone), are synthesized in which of the following? smooth ER
What is the function of the smooth ER in muscle cells known as sarcoplasmic reticulum? store calcium ions
Which of the following contains anticodons? tRNA
Which of the following disorders means increase in size of an organ related to increase in cell number rather than increase in cell size? hyperplasia
Which of the following cells have multiple nuclei? skeletal muscle
The three main parts of a cell include all of the following except: organelles
(T/F)All human cells will contain the same cellular structures. FALSE
(T/F)Carrier proteins are used only for active transport. FALSE
(T/F)During translation, the genetic information in DNA is copied to RNA. FALSE
(T/F)For the process of protein synthesis, an RNA codon specifies a particular amino acid. TRUE
(T/F)In passive transport processes, the net movement of substances is down their concentration gradient. TRUE
(T/F)Chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis of the liver are both risk factors for liver cancer. TRUE
(T/F)Tumor markers are secreted by malignant cells. FALSE
If the extracellular fluid contains a greater concentration of solutes than the cytosol of the cell, the extracellular fluid is said to be hypertonic.
The proteins found in the plasma membrane have all of these functions.
To enter many body cells, glucose must bind to a specific membrane carrier protein, which assists glucose to cross the membrane without using ATP. This type of movement is known as facilitated diffusion.
A red blood cell placed in a hypotonic solution undergoes hemolysis.
Many white blood cells engulf bacteria through phagocytosis.
Which organelles are involved in the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide in the liver? peroxisomes
Which of the following processes requires ATP? active transport
Nicotine in cigarette smoke interferes with the ability of cells to rid the breathing passageways of debris. Which organelles are “paralyzed” by nicotine? cilia
Many proteins found in the plasma membrane are formed by the ___ and packaged by the ___. ribosomes; Golgi complex
Which pairing below is NOT correct? protein synthesis, Golgi complex
If the smooth ER were destroyed, a cell would not be able to synthesize fatty acids and steroids.
Water moves into and out of red blood cells through osmosis.
A cell undergoing mitosis goes through the following stages in which sequence? prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
What is it called when copying information contained in DNA to mRNA? Transcription
If a DNA strand has a nitrogenous base sequence TACGA, then the sequence of bases on the corresponding mRNA would be AUGCU
In what phase does the nuclear envelope (membrane) and nucleoli reappear? telophase
In which phase is a cell highly active and growing? interphase
Movement of materials into and out of the nucleus is controlled by the nuclear pores.
Which of the following statements concerning cancer is NOT true? Angiogenesis is the spread of cancerous cells to other parts of the body.
Created by: dtgs2010