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S+P test 1 NWHSU

How many spinal segments does an adult and a child have? 26, 33
How many cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal segments does an adult have? 7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 1 sacral, 1 coccygeal
How many cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal segments does an child have? 7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, 4 coccygeal
Where is the first disc located in the spine? C2~C3
The discs make up ___% of your height? 25%
What are primary curves of the spine? Are they kyphotic or lordotic? Primary curves have been there since birth. Kyphotic
What are secondary curves of the spine? Are they kyphotic or lordotic? Formed from posture after both. lordotic
What are five reason we have curves in the spine? Balance, strength, stress, weight distribution, motion
What plane divides the body in left and right sides? Sagittal plane
What plane divides the body in superior and inferior portions? Transverse
What plane divides the bodys front side and back side? Coronal
How many intervertebral discs are present in the spine? 23
What are the typical cervical vertebrae? C3~7
What vertebrae have the uncinate processes? Cervical
What vertebrae have transverse foramen? Cervical
Which vertebral bodies are the smallest in the spine? Cervical
Are cervical vertebra wider side to side or A to P? Side to side
Cervical vertebrae inferior endplates are ______ side to side and ________ A~P. Convex side to side, concave a to p
Uncinate processes are on the _______ endplates of the _______ vertebrae. They are on the _______ 1/3~1/2. Superior endplates, posterior
Because of the Uncinate process the __________ endplates have _________ facets. Inferior endplates, semi~ lunar facets
The Uncinate process and semi lunar facets create a joint called ____________, also known as ____ _______. Uncovertebral joint or Von Lushka
What happens as disc height decreases? Creates stress forming osteophytes. Also less to IVF stenosis.
The pedicals of the cervical spine are small and stall like. they are ____° to the ____________ plane. 45° sagittal plane
Pedicals connect the _________ to the _________ of a vertebra. Vertebral bodies to articular pillars.
The pedicals of the cervical vertebrae form the bottom of the _____________. Intervertebral foramen (IVF)
Pedicles are more ________ shaped in the Cervical spine. circular
Transverse processes of the Cervical spine are _______ shaped. U Shaped (half-pipe)
Transverse processes of the cervical spine are ___° to the sagittal plane and ___° to the caudal plane. 60° saggital (out) 15° caudal (down)
The ______ vertebrae have anterior roots + anterior tubercles and posterior roots + posterior tubercles. Cervical
The transverse foramen is between the anterior and posterior ______. anterior and posterior roots
What passes through the transverse foramina? Vertebral Artery
Osseous bridge joining the posterior arch of C1 to the lateral masses. Posterior Ponticle
What is located between the Pedicle and lamina in the cervical spine? Articular Pillar
The upper half of the articular pillar is called __________ and the lower half of the articular pillar is called the _________. Superior articular process, inferior articular process
Superior facets of the cervical spine face ______ and ________. upward and posterior
Inferior facets of the cervical spine face _______ and ________. downward and anterior
The facet joints of the cervical spine are at a ____° angle with the ________ plane. 45° with the transverse plane
What is another name for facet joint? Zygopophyseal joint
From the pillars, what merges centrally with the spinous process? Lamina
___-____ _________ is the area where the two laminas of the vertebra meet. From a lateral view it shows up as a white line on an x-ray. Spino-laminar junction
Which vertebrae have bifid spinous processes for muscle attachment? cervical
What is the largest or bulkiest spinous process of the Cervical spine? C2
Central Canal AP minimum dimension for C1, C2, C3, C4-C7? C1-16mm, C2-14mm, C3-13mm, C4to7-12mm
Torg's Ratio says that AP central canal is at least ___% of the AP vertebral body dimension. 80%
C1 is also called the ______. It has _______, __________, ________, ________, and _________ Atlas, Anterior archs, Posterior archs, Anterior tubercle, Posterior tubercle, and Lateral masses
Anterior arch of C1 makes up __/__ of the foramen. 1/5
What articulates with C2 Odontoid process? Fovea Dens
Each lateral mass of C1 makes up _/_ of the arch. 1/5 each
What connects the occiput to C2? Lateral masses of C1
lateral masses of C1 angle _____ anteriorly. inward (lateral to medial)
The lateral masses of C1 have ______ for the transverse ligament. tubercles
The posterior arch of C1 makes of _/_ of the ring. 2/5
Which part of C1 has the groove for the vertebral artery, vein, and 1st cervical nerve? Posterior Arch
Steele's law of thirds means 1/3 of C1s foramen goes to ____, 1/3 to ____ and 1/3 to____. Dens, Cord, left over space
The transverse ligament divdes anterior _/_ from posterior _/_. 1/3 from posterior 2/3
What are two other names for C2? Axis and Epistropheus
Body is of C2 thicker _____ to _____ than ____ to ___. top to bottom than A to P
What is another name for Dens of C2? Odontoid process
C2 Pedicles are covered by _______. superior facets
Which Cervical vertebra has the larges laminae? C2
C2 Transverse process is not ____ unlike C3-C7. Bifid (single tubercle)
C2 has no articular pillar, instead it has a space between the superior facet and inferior facet called ___________. pars interarticularis (pars)
Superior facets of C2 are large round and domed. They face ____ and _______. up and lateral
Inferior facets of C2 face _______ and ______. down and lateral
What is the larges spinous process of the cervical vertebrae? C2 (first palpable SP, bifid)
C7 is also known as the vertebral _________. prominens (very prominent, stays out when you palpate 6 and 7 and extend your neck back while 6 looses contact)
Second largest TPs in the C-Spine belong to C_? C7
T7 has no ______ tubercle while it has a large _______ tubercle. anterior, large posterior tubercle
the foramen in C7 is small because it only contains the vertebral ____ and not the vertebral _____. vein, and not the artery.
The Atlantodental Interspace in kids should be no bigger than ___mm and no bigger than ___mm in adults. 5mm in kids, 3 mm in adults
3 reasons for a bigger than normal Atlantodental Interspace Trauma (Dens fracture), rheumatoid arthritis, or agenesis (born that way)
When uncinate process are bent outward in x-rays like a mad cats ears that is called what? uncovertebral arthritis
Wolfs Law discs degenerate/increased stress=_________ increased bone (osteophytes "spurs")
Thoracic spine has a ________ curve, sometimes with slight convexity to the ______. kyphotic curve, right
Thoracic spine makes up ___% of the cord length 75%
Thoracic cage is made up of __ vertebrae, ___ ribs, and the ______. 12, 12, sternum
Costal and Demi facets on posterior VB articulate with the ________ of the rib. head
Costal facets on the TP of the Thoracic vertebrae articulate with the _____ of the rib. tubercle
SPs of the thoracic vertebrae point ______ and are ________. downward and are imbricated.
The longest SPs of the spine are T_-_ T5-8
Which vertebrae have the smallest IVF's and central canal. Thoracic
Typical thoracic vertebrae have a ____ shaped body. More ______ in upper, more _____ in lower. heart, rectangular in upper, kidney in lower
Thoracic vertebrae have concave ______ and _______ surfaces. anterior and lateral
How many facets does a thoracic vertebra have and how many processes? 10 facets, 7 processes
Typical thoracic vertebral body height is _-_ mm shorter _____. 1-2mm shorter anteriorly
When endplates aren't fully ossified and look rigid on x-rays the patient has ________ disease. This can lead to ___________ Scheuermans Disease. Disc herniation
Thoracic pedicals originate from ____ _/_ of body causing it to be notched _________. upper 1/3, inferiorly
Thoracic pedicals project ________ while cervical and lumbar are closer to __°. straight back, 45°
Superior articular pillars of the thoracic vertebrae face ________, _______ and slightly _______. posterior, superior and (slightly lateral 20°)
Inferior articular pillar of the thoracic vertebrae face _______, ________ and slightly ________. inferior, anterior, and (slightly medial 20°)
Thoracic SAPs and IAPs project from the _______. (Junction of pedicle and lamina) pars
SAPs and IAPs of the thoracic spine are __° to the ________ plane. 60° to the horizontal plane
Thoracic laminae are thick, broad, and ________. imbricated
Interlaminar space on x-rays is ______ shaped for T-Spine and ______ shaped for l-spine kidney bean, and oval for lumbar
TPs of the thoracic spine originate at ____, they are thick club like and they _______ in size from T1-T12. pars, decrease
The oval facets on the thoracic TPs are ______ shaped in mid thoracic and _____ in lower thoracic cup shaped in mid thoracic (rotation), flat in lower (sliding)
Atypical thoracic vertebrae include ____ T1, T9-12
T1 body is more ________ like cervicals_ rectangular
T1 has full costal facets on ______/______ body posterior/superior
Sp of T1 is straight and dorsal or _______. anticlinal
T9 has a large ______ for 9th rib. May or may not have demifacets for ___ rib. demifacet, 10th
T10 usually has no ______. Its the only vertebra that articulates with rib 10 meaning it has a single _____ facet. TPs may or may not have ___________. Demifacets, costal facet, Costal facets
T11 has the costal facet on the VB and ______. It has no costal facet on TP. Its SP is ______. pedicle, anticlinal
T12 costal facet is on side and _______. Hardly any TP. SAP is _____ and IAP is round and convex. IT faces ______ and __________ while normal thoracic vertebrae face ______ and _______. T12 costal facet is on side and pedicle. Hardly any TP. SAP is typical and IAP is round and convex. IT faces anterior and laateral while normal thoracic vertebrae face anterior and medial.
Thoracic spinal canal is _____ then _____ near the lumbar spine. round then triangular
____ rib is the longest. 7th
Ribs 8-10 _______ in length. decrease
Ribs have ________ joints and costovertebral joints. costotransverse joints.
Costal cartilage is made of ________ cartilage. hyaline
What is the name of a concave chest where the ribs slope up? What can happen from a mild case? A bad case? Pectus Excavatum, mild case-rib outs, bad case-surgery
Fibro Dysplasia is common on ribs but can happen anywhere. What does it cause? enlarged ribs
Lumbar vertebral bodies are _______ shaped. kidney
Lumbar vertebra are _____ side to side than A to P wider
Compare anterior body height and posterior body height of L1 and L2 Anterior is shorter than posterior
Compare anterior body height and posterior body height of L3. They are the same height.
Compare anterior body height and posterior body height of L4 and L5 Anterior is taller than posterior
Pedicles in the Lumbar spine are short and strong. They extend from the upper _/_ of the VB. 1/2
The L1 and L2 pedicles extend back at what angle? straight back
the L3-5 pedicles extend back at what angle? 45°
Pedicles are widest apart in the _____ spine. Lumbar (Widest at L5)
Laminae in the lumbar spine are ______ and ____. They are not _______. short and broad. not imbricated (large oval interlaminar space on x-ray
Transverse processes are widest at L_. L3
lumbar TPs project ______ and _____ from pedicles. (some pars) lateral and posterior
SPs in the lumbar spine are thick and large. They are ________ shaped. Tip of SP is ____-like. Quadrangular, club-like
Lumbar superior facets face ______ and ____. posterior and medial. (concave surface)
Lumbar inferior facets face _______ and __________. anterior and lateral
Facets in the upper lumbar spine look like _______ and lie within the ______ plane. an inverted J and are in the sagittal plane
Facets in the lower lumbar spine change to the ________ plane coronal
What is it called when one lumbar facet is in the sagittal plane and the other in the coronal. This is fairly common Facet tropism
The lumbar mammillary process extends ___ from ______. posteriorly from SAP
What is the point of contact when adjusting the lumbar spine? Mammillary process
What is the tiny and difficult to detect process at the TP base of the lumbar spine? accessory process
What is the accessory process an attachment point for? MAL (Protects the medial branch of the dorsal ramus nerve root)
What are two names for the bone between the SAP and IAP of the lumbar spine? Pars Interarticularis or Isthmus
In L1-L2 the ___ is below the Pars. IAP
In L3-5 the _____ is below the lamina IAP
L5 has a prominent _______ impression on the _________ endplate. nuclear impression on the inferior endplate
Pedicles in the Lumbar spine have something called the _______. It is a sloped contour on the medial aspect. It allows for exit of nerve roots. Most pronounced at L5. Lateral Recess
Very small spurring at the anterior vertebral body corners (pre-osteophyte) spondylolosis
Break in pars interarticularis (can be unilateral or bilateral) What is it caused by Spondylolysis, severe trauma or repetitive microtrauma
Forward slip of the vertebral body One cause? Spondylolisthesis, pars defects
Backwards slip of vertebral body retrolisthesis
Created by: T1NWHSU