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Monahan: Digestive

Alimentary Canal/Enzymes

VocabularyDefinition
pharynx back of the throat
esophagus food chute, connects pharynx to stomach
duodenum first portion of small intestine
jejunum middle portion of small intestine
ileum last portion of small intestine
small intestine main organ for chemical digestion and absorption of nutrients
large intestine main organ for the absorption of water
cecum first section of the large intestine
villi (micorvilli) increase surface area of absorption of nutrients
goblet cells unicellular glands that secrete mucus
mucosa inner layer of alimentary canal; composed of nonciliated simple columnar epithelium
alimentary canal organs of digestive system in which "food" passes through
submucosa tissue layer below the mucosa; made of areolar (loose) connective tissue; very vascular
muscularis tissue layer composed of smooth muscle
circular myofibers smooth muscle cells that, when contracted, decrease the diameter of the digestive tube
longitudinal myofibers smooth muscle cells that, when contracted, decrease the length of the digestive tube
serosa tissue layer that covers abdominal organs; made of simple squamous (visceral peritoneum)
lumen hollow space within an organ
mechanical digestion occurs in the mouth with the help of the teeth and tongue, also occurs in the stomach as the muscular layer contracts
chemical digestion occurs in the mouth, stomach and small intestine with the help of enzymes and acids
amylase enzyme in saliva that begins the breakdown of carbohydrates in the mouth
parotid salivary glands that produce the most amylase
sublingual salivary glands that produce the most mucus
bolus soft mass of food that is swallowed
peristalsis slow, wave-like muscular contractions that push "food" through the digestive tube
pepsin enzyme produced in stomach that breaks down proteins
parietal cells produce HCl acid within the stomach
rugae folds of the mucosa within the stomach
chyme liquified/partially digested "food" that exits the stomach into the small intestine
bile produced by the liver; breaks down (emulsifies) lipids
pancreatic juice combination of enzymes produced by the pancreas; breaks down all types of macromolecules
macromolecules large molecules like proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates
haustra pouches of the large intestine
feces solid material that is expelled through the anus
water main molecule absorbed in the large intestine
Created by: smonahan