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ANT Chpt 2

Anatomy Chapter 2

A solution that contains a greater number of hydrogen ions (H+) than hydroxide ions (OH–) is acidic
What happens when two amino acids are bonded together? A peptide bond is formed.
A molecule composed of glycerol, two fatty acids, and a phosphate group is a ___. phospholipid
Approximately 96% of the mass of the human body is composed of the elements C, H, O, N.
The most important and most abundant inorganic compound in the body is ___. water
A substance with a pH of 5 has ____ time fewer H+ ions than a substance with a pH of 4. 10
Which of the following is common to all organic molecules? carbon
Which of the following is a component of all proteins and nucleic acids? nitrogen
If its outer electron shell is filled, the atom is ___. chemically stable
The symbol Na+ represents a sodium atom that has lost ___. an electron
Which of the following kinds of bonds is formed as a result of the loss and gain of electrons? ionic
Substances that ionize in water are called ___. electrolytes
The formula H2O represents a molecule consisting of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom.
The energy of motion is ___. kinetic energy
A quantity of matter composed of atoms that are all the same kind is called ___. an element
Which element is a component of all protein molecules, DNA, and RNA? nitrogen
Which of the following is the most abundant positively charged ion (cation) in the intracellular fluid, and is required for generating nerve and muscle impulses? K+
The non-ionic form of a potassium atom (K) has 20 neutrons in its nucleus and 19 electrons around the nucleus. Which of the following is the mass number of this atom? 39
The chemical reactivity of an atom is determined by the number of electrons in the outermost shell.
Helium (He) is a chemically stable gas because its outermost shell is completely filled with electrons.
Water is an excellent solvent (i.e., it can dissolve many substances), because It has polar-covalent bonds.
Because water requires a large amount of heat to change from a liquid to gas it serves to stabilize the internal temperature of the body.
The primary component of lubricating fluids in the body (e.g., saliva and mucus) is ___. water.
Which of these substances would form an acid when dissolved in water? HCl
Which of the beakers contain a basic solution? KOH (K+ & OH-)
The body’s most concentrated source(s) of chemical energy is(are) ___. triglycerides
One end of a phospholipid is hydrophilic because it is composed of what type of group? a polar phosphate group.
The building blocks of proteins are ___. amino acids
All steroids contain four rings of carbon atoms.
Amino acids are different from each other because of the structure of the side chain (R group).
Which is a component of DNA, but NOT of RNA? thymine
The portion of a protein molecule where the substrates attach is called the ___ active site.
The names of enzymes usually end with the suffix ___. -ase
DNA and RNA contain what two sugars? deoxyribose and ribose.
The chemical called the “energy currency” of living systems is ___. ATP
Some enzymes fit substrates just as a key fits in a lock. This describes which of the important characteristics of enzymes? specificity
(T/F) Hydrogen bonds are strong chemical bonds. FALSE
(T/F) The presence of hydrogen bonds tends to strengthen large molecules such as DNA. FALSE
(T/F) Normally the pH of the blood remains almost constant. TRUE
(T/F) When glucose and fructose molecules join to form a sucrose molecule, the process involves the formation and removal of a water molecule. TRUE
(T/F) Enzymes are highly specific to a particular chemical reaction involving a specific substrate or substrates. TRUE
(T/F) Sucrose (table sugar) is a disaccharide. TRUE
The nucleus of an atom contains protons and neutrons.
What type of bonds are created by atoms giving away and taking electrons? Ionic bonds
Combining atoms of two or more different elements results in a(n) compound.
Matter that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by ordinary chemical reactions is known as a chemical element.
Chlorine (Cl) has an atomic number of 17. An atom of chlorine may become a chloride ion (Cl-) by gaining one electron.
(T/F) A substance that separates in water to form some cation other than H+ and some anion other than OH- is known as a salt. TRUE
(T/F) A solution that has a pH of 9.4 is acidic. FALSE
(T/F) A solution with a pH of 5 is 100 times more acidic than distilled water, which has a pH of 7. TRUE
(T/F) Buffers help to make the body’s pH more stable. TRUE
(T/F) Salts are formed by the interaction between acids and bases. TRUE
(T/F) Is the following organic compound paired with their correct subunit (building blocks)? GLYCOGEN/GLUCOSE TRUE
(T/F) Is the following organic compound paired with their correct subunit (building blocks)? PROTEINS/MONOSACCHARIDES FALSE
(T/F) Is the following organic compound paired with their correct subunit (building blocks)? DNA/NUCLEOTIDES TRUE
(T/F) Is the following organic compound paired with their correct subunit (building blocks)? LIPIDS/GLYCEROL & FATTY ACIDS TRUE
(T/F) Is the following organic compound paired with their correct subunit (building blocks)? ATP/ADP & P TRUE
The type of reaction by which a disaccharide is formed from two monosaccharides is known as a dehydration synthesis reaction.
Which of the following contains the genetic code in human cells? DNA
What is the principal energy-transferring molecule in the body? ATP
(T/F) Water is involved in many chemical reactions in the body. TRUE
(T/F) Water is an important solvent in the human body. TRUE
(T/F) Water helps lubricate a variety of structures in the body. TRUE
(T/F) Water can absorb a large amount of heat without drastically changing its temperature. TRUE
(T/F) Water requires very little heat to change from a liquid to a gas. FALSE
The difference in H+ concentration between solutions with a pH of 3 and a pH of 5 is that the solution with the pH of 3 has ___ H+. 100 times more
(T/F) Enzymes form a temporary complex with their substrates. TRUE
(T/F) Enzymes are not permanently altered by the chemical reactions they catalyze. TRUE
(T/F) All proteins are enzymes. FALSE
(T/F) Enzymes are considered organic catalysts. TRUE
(T/F) Enzymes are subject to cellular control. TRUE
(T/F) DNA is composed of nucleotides TRUE
(T/F) DNA forms a double helix TRUE
(T/F) DNA contains thymine TRUE
(T/F) DNA contains the sugar ribose FALSE
(T/F) DNA is the hereditary material of cells TRUE
Which type of lipid is the least desirable for maintaining good health? saturated fat
If an enzyme is exposed to an extremely high temperature, it will denature.
In what form are lipids stored in the adipose (fat) tissue of the body? triglycerides
Approximately 96% of your body’s mass is composed of only what four elements. C-H-O-N
Is water inorganic (I) or organic (O)? inorganic
Is DNA inorganic (I) or organic (O)? organic
Is salt inorganic (I) or organic (O)? inorganic
Is disaccharide inorganic (I) or organic (O)? organic
Is protein inorganic (I) or organic (O)? organic
Is acid inorganic (I) or organic (O)? inorganic
Is phospholipid inorganic (I) or organic (O)? organic
Created by: dtgs2010