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Age of the Reformation

why did many townspeople/peasants support religious revolt they thought it would help them stay politically independent
where did the reformation first break out imperial cities of germany and switzerland
What 3 conflicts within the church made the reformation possible? great schism, conciliar movement, renaissance papacy
2 causes of reformation/criticism of church lay people became more educated (traveled more + growth in literacy from printing press)
what was the modern devotion? boarding school for laypeople who watned to practice individual piety, source of humanist, protestant, and catholic-reform movements
what was the modern devotion also known as? brothers of the common life
what 3 things hurried the collapse of the church? greater sense of religious identity + nationalism + better government
What was the problem with the benefice system? it allowed people to buy important church positions and didn't enforce the rule that clergy had to live in the districts
what were 3 special rights that the church had during the Middle ages? its properties were exempt from taxes + didn't have to do civic duties + immune from authority civil courts
what is luther's main doctrine sola fide; justification by faith alone
What is an indulgence permitted people to buy their way + deceased's way out of purgatory for sins and make up for it with good works
why were indulgences given originally? to crusaders who could not complete penances because they had fallen in battle
Who was the most famous indulgence preacher? John Tetzel
what are the 95 theses luthers views against indulgences that he posted on door of church at wittenburg, first sign of rebellion
what did Luther's Address to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation urge? urged German princes to force reforms on Roman church + limit its power
What did Luther argue in the Babylonian Captivity of the Church said only 2 of the 7 sacraments were valid, lowered power of pope
What is a diet? assembly of states of Holy Roman Empire
What happened at the Diet of Worms? What was the result and how did Luther react? Luther presented his views to Emperor Charles V and the German states. Luther was ordered to withdraw but refused
What was the main ideal in Luther's Freedom of A Christian Sola fide
Why did many German territorial princes support religious reforms? they knew that the demise of the roman catholic church would give them economic + political opportunities
How did Luther's relationship with the peasants change? Why first he supported the peasants because he thought they should have rights but then they started revolting so he called them un-christian (he didn't want to be part of a peasant revolt)
What were the 2 main preconditions of the Swiss Reformation? growth in nationalism/opposition to foreign mercenary service and desire for church reforms after Councils of Constance and Basel
The Swiss Reformation was led by _____ who was inspired by _____ Ulrich Zwingli, erasmus
Why did Philip of Hesse organize the Marburg Colloquy? was it successful? to unite Swiss + German protestants , no
What did Zwingli believe about religion? What did Luther believe? Zwingli believed Christ was spiritually present in Eucharist , Luther believes Christ was spiritually and bodily present
What were the Anabaptists and what belief distinguished them? radical protestant group that rejected infant baptism
who was the anabaptist founder? what was their stronghold Conrad Grebel, munster
Who was closer to Catholicism? Zwingli or Luther? Luther
What was the dominant protestant force in europe by the second half of the 16th century? calvinism
What 2 things did Calvinists believe in Strongly Divine predestination and individual responsibility to reorder society
What is John Calvins famous book? Institutes of the Christian Religion
Who are the elect according to calvin? how should they behave? Those who believe/live as instructed by the bible, should live in a god pleasing way
what was the major calvinist stronghold geneva
What did the diet of Augsburg order? Why didnt it work? that all Lutherans revert to catholicism,didnt work because reformation was too strong
What was the Augsburg Confession? How did Charles V react to it? statement of protestant beliefs that the emperor had spurned at diet of augsburg
what german city became a lutheran stronghold magdeburg
What did the Peace/Treaty of Augsburg do? What did it symbolize It made the division of Christendom permanent by letting ruler of land decide its religion --> lutheran victory
what 2 major protestant groups were Not protected under the Peace of Augsburg Anabaptists and Calvinists
How did King Henry VII earn the title defender of the faith the pope gave it to him after he defended the 7 sacraments against Luther
what allowed the seeds of religious reform to take root king henry vIII's unhappy marriage w/ Catherine of Aragon and obsession to get a male heir
what did the reformation parliament do in england made laws that limited clergy
What were the only 2 things that really changed as a result of Henry's reforms? the pope was no longer the head of the english church, english Bibles were placed in English churches
What was the Act of Supremacy (henry vIII) declared Henry the only supreme head of church of england
What was the Act of Succession made henrys 8th's kids legit heirs to throne
What did Henry's 6 Articles state reaffirmed trans, denied eucharist cup to laity, celibacy CATHOLIC VALUES
Under Edward VI what happened in england it became protestant
what was the act of uniformity imposed thomas cranmer's book of common prayer on all english churches
what was the catholic counter reformation movement to stop protestants + restore catholicism
What were 3 counter reformation groups? Jesuits, Ursulines, Capuchins
What was the main doctrine of the jesuits? what was their nature complete obedience to church, self discipline, very militant
who was the jesuit leader ignatius of loyola
what was the main doctrine of the capuchins? pious teachings of saint francis
Who were the ursulines? religious order that promoted education for girls from all social classes
What did the Council of trent do? reaffirmed catholic ideals, some reforms like stopped benefice system and clergy had to be educated
how did the role of women change after the reformation had more importance +rights
what was the average family size during reformation 4-6
Why did people marry later during the reformation had difficulty supporting themselves independently
Who most used wet nurses noblewomen because they could afford it, convenience, vanity
why did the church condemn birth control they said it was immoral because it went against nature
what were shakespeares major accomplishments tragedies like romeo and juliet, historical plays like Richard III
What was Cervantes's major work? what did it compare Don Quixote, compared realism with idealism, chivalry
Created by: mhaq.16