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Hypotonic Below normal tone of tension
Hypertonic Excessive, above normal, tone or tension
Isontonic Having uniform tension; of the same tone
Simple Diffusion The unassisted diffusion of solutes through the plasma membrane. Concentration gradient
Exocytosis The transport of material out of a cell by means of a sac or vesicle that first engulfs the material and then is extruded through an opening in the cell membrane. Requires ATP to get secretion out.
Osmosis The diffusion of a solvent through a membrane from a dilute solution to am ore concentrated one. Uses a concentration gradient (water)
Filtration The passage of a solvent and dissolved substances through a membrane or filter. Pressure gradient.
Phagocytosis The ingestion of solid particles by cells. Requires ATP for large particles.
Solute Pumping Cell Require protein carriers that combine reversibly with the substances to be transported across the membrane and use ATP to energize its protein carriers. Requires ATP against gradient
Cell The basic biological unit of a living organism containing a nucleus and a variety of organelles enclosed by a limiting membrane
Centrioles Minute bodies found near the nucleus of the cell; active in cell division
Chromatin The structures in the nucleus that carry hereditary factors (genes)
Chromosomes Barlike bodies of tightly coiled chromatin, visible during cell division
Cillia Tiny, hairlike projections on cell surfaces that move in a wavelike manner
Cytoplasm The substance of a cell other than that of the nucleus
Cytoskeleton Acts as the cell's bones and muscles to help give the cell it's shape and structure
Cytosol Water soluble components of the cell cytoplasm
DNA Nucleic acid found in all living cells; carries the organism's hereditary information
Flagella Long, whiplike extensions of the cell membrane of some bacteria and sperm. Serve to propel the cell.
Golgi Apparatus Layers of flattened sacs that is active in the modification and transport of proteins
Inclusion A body suspended in the cytoplasm, a granule
Interstitial fluid The fluid between cells
Lysosomes Organelles that originate from the Golgi Apparatus and contain strong digestive enzymes
Microvilli Tiny projections on the free surfaces of some epithelial cells; increase surface area for absorption
Mitochondria The rod-like cytoplasmic organelles responsible for ATP generation for cellular activities
Nuclear Membrane The double membrane surrounding the nucleus within a cell
Nucleoli Small spherical bodies in the cell nucleus; function in ribosome synthesis
Nucleoplasm The plasm within the nucleus of the cell
Nucleus A dense central body in most cells containing the genetic material of the cell
Organelles Specialized structures in a cell that perform specific metabolic functions
Peroxisomes A cell organelle containing catalase, peroxidase, and other oxidative enzymes and performing essential metabolic functions, as the decomposition of fatty acids and hydrogen peroxide.
Plasma (cell) membrane Membrane that encloses the cell contents; outer limiting membrane
Ribosomes Cytoplasmic organelles at which proteins are synthesized
Rough ER Studded with ribosomes, transports materials through the cell and produces proteins in sacs
Smooth ER Contains enzymes and digests fats and membrane proteins. The vacuole(s) fill with food being digested and waste material that is on its way out of the cell
DNA to DNA A-T, T-A, G-C, C-G
DNA to mRNA A-U, C-G, T-A, G-C
Interstitial fluid vs. Intracellular fluid Interstitial fluid is outside of the cell while Intracellular fluid is found inside of the cell (cytosol)
Functions of Components of Cytoplasm Cytosol: The liquid of cytoplasm surrounding the organelles in a cell where a variety of cell processes take place. Organelles: Specialized parts of cell different specific functions. Inclusions: A body suspended in cytoplasm, a granule
Types of RNA and functions mRNA: Single stranded, directions protein. rRNA: Proteins will be made. Transfer RNA: Bring correct amino acid
Diffusion vs. Osmosis Diffusion is transferring substances from a high concentration to a low concentration. Osmosis is the diffusion of materials through water.
Protein synthesis Prophase, Anaphase, Metaphase, and Telophase
Prophase When the chromatin threads coil and shorten and chromosomes appear. The centrioles separate and move toward opposite sides of the cell forming the mitotic spindle.
Metaphase Chromosomes cluster and become aligned at the center of the spindle midway between the centrioles so that a straight line of chromosomes is seen
Anaphase Centromeres split, chromosomes move apart toward opposite ends of the cell.
Telophase Prophase in reverse: Chromosomes uncoil to become chromatin again, spindle breaks down and disappears, nuclear envelope forms around each chromatin mass, nucleoli appear in each daughter nuclei
Mitosis Interphase -> Early Prophase -> Late Prophase -> Metaphase -> Anaphase -> Telophase and cytokinesis
Cytokinesis Division of the cytoplasm
Complimentary base pairing (DNA and RNA) Replication -> DNA-DNA Transcription -> DNA-mRNA Translation -> RNA-Amino Acid-Protein
Created by: AndreaPost



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