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Module 5 - Back

DPT back anatomy

QuestionAnswer
What are the palpable bony landmarks of the spine? spinous processes, transverse processes, articular pillars, mammillary processes, sacral/coccygeal landmarks
Typical vertebrae consists of these three parts? body, arch, pedicles
Vertebral arch consists of pedicles + lamina
spina bifida occulta failure to fuse, bony
meningocele meniges protrude through
meninmyelocele spinal cord+meninges protrude
Transverse processes project from junction of ______ and _____. pedicles and lamina
Transverse processes are the _________ and _________ for spinal muscles. These muscles allow for ______ movement. attachment and lever; less
Superior and inferior articular process project from __________ and _____________. pedicle and lamina
A synovial joint between the superior articular process of one vertebra and inferior articular process of the vertebrae directly above it. Zygapophyseal jonts
___________ process project posteriorly from junction of R/L lamina. Spinous (process)
Vertebral foramen are formed by the ________ and the _____________ body and vertebral arch
How is the vertebral canal formed? Collectively by the vertebral foramina
The intervertebral foramen are formed where? between vertebrae
The superior and inferior vertebral notches form the _____________. intervertebral foramen
What are the smallest vertebrae? C3-7
In the cervical vertebrae which are wider side to side, the bodies or the articular process? bodies are wider
How many vertebrae are there? Cervical? Thoracic? Lumbar? 33; 7, 12, 5
How many vertebrae are fused? 5 fused S, 4 fused C
What is the typical length of the vertebral column? 72-75 cm
Which areas of the spine have a primary curvature? Thoracic and Sacral
Which areas of the spine have a secondary curvature? Lumbar and Cervical
What is the function of spinal curves? To absorb 10x more shock than a straight spine
What are our spinal curves like at birth? only primary curve
When do secondary curves develop? infant holds head/sits upright = 2ndary curve in cervical infant begins to walk/stand =2ndary curve in lumbar
A secondary curve may also be called lordotic
A primary curve may also be called kyphotic
What are the four (or five depending on how you count) functions of the spinal column? protect spinal cord support weight of head and trunk allow movement of the rib came posture/locomotion
What joints allow movement of the rib cage? costovertebral joints
Each region of the spine ___________ and _______ specific movements. emphasizes and limits
Kyphosis is excessive ____________ in ___ spine curvature in T spine
Lordosis is an excessive _____________ in _____ spine excessive in L spine
What is scoliosis? lateral deviation of the spine with a rotary component
Key factors in scoliosis are _________ and _____________ progression and severity
What are two treatments for extreme/painful scoliosis? bracing and surgical intervention
What do the cervical foramen look like? triangular and large
The cervical transverse processes allow what artery to pass through _________. C6-1
Does C7 have a transverse process? small or no TP
Do the cervical vertebrae have transverse foramen? yes
The superior facets of the cervical vertebrae face in which direction? superiorly and posteriorly
The inferior facets of the cervical vertebrae face in which direction? inferior and anterior
What is the most process cervical spinous processes? C7
Which vertebrae are bifid? C3-5
What are two distinguishing characteristics of thoracic vertebrae? heart shaped with costal facets
Thoracic vertebrae have vertebral foramen that are _______ in shape and ______ than C vert foramen and _____ than L vert foramen. circular; smaller; smaller
The transverse processes of thoracic vertebrae are _______ and _________ have facets for articulation with _______. long; T1-10; ribs
What are transverse costal facets? Where ribs articulate with vertebrae
The superior facets of the thoracic vertebrae face in which direction? posterior and slightly lateral
The inferior facets of the thoracic vertebrae face in which direction? anteriorly and slightly medial
Spinous processes of thoracic vertebrae are ________ and extend ____________. long and extend inferiorly to segment below
Bodies of lumbar vertebral bodies are _____________ shaped. kidney
Vertebral foramen of lumbar vertebrae have what shape and size? triangular; larger than T, smaller than C
Transverse processes of lumbar vertebrae have _____________ located ____________. accessory process -tubercles located at the base of TP's
The superior facets of the lumbar vertebrae face in which direction? posteriorly and medially
The inferior facets of the lumbar vertebrae face in which direction? anteriorly and laterally
The lumbar vertebrae have ______________ which are tubercles located on _______________. mamillary process-tubercles located on superior articular pillow
The spinous processes of the lumbar vertebrae have a ________ shape. sturdy, "hatchet" shape
The sacrum is a large __________ wedge shaped bone composed of ____ fused vertebrae and _____ pairs of foramina. triangular; 5 vertebrae and 4 pairs of foraamina
The sacrum provides _______________. stability to the pelvis
What is the sacral promontory? prominent anterior edge of 1st vertebra segment
What is the sacral ala? superior/lateral portion of sacrum
What is the median sacral crest? midline formed by fused spinal processes
What forms the sacral hiatus? it is formed by failure of the lamina of S5 to fuse
What forms the sacral cornu (horns)? formed by the pedicles of S5
What contains the nerve roots of cauda equina? sacral canal
The apex of the sacrum is the ____________ end. inferior
The base of the sacrum is ___________. the superior portion of S1
What is the angle between the long axis of the lumbar part of the vertebral column and that of the sacrum lumbosacral angle
The coccyx is the _______ shaped bone of _____________. wedge; 4 fused coccygeal vertebrae
The coccyx provides of the attachment of ___________. the pelvic muscles
What vertebra are atypical? atlas (C1) and axis (C2)
The atlas vertebra is _____ shaped with ____ spinous process and ___ body. ring; 0; 0
The atlas vertebra consists of ______. anterior and posterior aches with transverse processes
The superior facet articulates with ___________. This allows for _________________ motion. occipital condyles; flexion and extension motion
The inferior faces articulate with ______ and allows for ______ motion. C2 (superior facet);rotary
The discs of the vertebral bodies consist of _________________. disc=annulus fibrosus+nucleus pulposus
The discs of the vertebral bodies are composed of water, collagenfibers, and proteoglycans
Where is there no disc? between occiput and C1 and C1-C2
Created by: wrenlette