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A & P 3


cells are organized into more complex units called tissues
tissues groups of cells that perform a common function
study of tissues histology
four types of tissues epithelial, connective, muscle and nervous
epithelial tissue covers body surfaces, lines body cavities, and forms majority of glands
epithelial tissues acts as physical protection, selectively permeable membrane, a source of secretions and sensations
epithelium is classified by two-part name... 1 - number of epithelial cell layers and 2 - shape of cells at apical surface
simple epithelium (classification by layers) one cell layer thick and is found where filtration, absorption, or secretion are the primary function
example of simple epithelium lining of air sacs of lungs, intestines and blood vessels
stratified epithelium (classification by layers) two or more layers of epithelial cells that are found in areas subjected to mechanical stress (better able to resist wear and tear)
example of stratified epithelium skin lining of the pharynx, esophagus
pseudostratified epithelium (classification by layers) type of simple epithelium that appears to be layered
squamous cells (classification by cell shape) flat, wide, irregular in shape and arranged like flattened floor tiles
cuboidal cells (classification by cell shape) cube-shaped
columnar cells (classification by cell shape) slender and taller than they are wide
transitional cells (classification by cell shape) change shape depending on stretch of epithelium and occur where epithelium stretches and relaxes
example of transitional cells lining of the bladder
glands individual cells or multicellular organs that are composed of predominantly epithelial tissue and secrete substances for use3 elsewhere or for elimination
secretions of the glands mucin, electrolytes, hormones, enzymes, and urea (nitrogenous waste)
endocrine glands lack ducts and secrete hormone products into intestinal fluid and blood to act as chemical messengers or influence cell activity elsewhere
exocrine glands connected with epithelial surface by duct
duct epithelium-lined tube for gland secretion
types of exocrine gland sweat glands, mammary glands, and salivary glands
connective tissue the most diverse and most widely distributed tissue, and it is designed to support, protect, and bind organs (all with proteins, protein fibers, and ground substance)
examples of connective tissue tendons and ligaments, body fat, cartilage, and bone, and blood
functions of connective tissue physical protection, support and structural framework, binding of structures, storage, transport, and immune protection
ligaments bind bone to bone
tendons bind muscle to bone
loose connective tissue contains relatively fewer cells and protein fibers, is an abundant ground substance, and acts as the body's packing material by supporting structures
three types of connective tissues areolar, adipose, and reticular
areolar loose connective tissue surrounds organs, nerve and muscle cells, and blood vessels
adipose loose connective tissue commonly known as fat
reticular loose connective tissue contains meshwork of reticular fibers, fibroblasts, and leukkocytes
dense connective tissue composed primarily of protein fibers, has proportionately less ground substance than loose connective tissue, and collagen fibers are usually the dominant fiber type
three types of dense connective tissue dense regular connective tissue, dense irregular connective tissue, and elastic connective tissue
dense regular connective tissue contains tightly packed parallel collagen fibers (resembles lasagna noodles), and is found in tendons and ligaments (with stress typically applied in a single directions), has few blood cells, and takes a long time to heal
dense irregular connective tissue contains clumps of collagen fibers in all directions, provides support and resistance to stress in multiple directions, and has extensive blood supply
dense irregular connective tissue is found in... most of the skin dermis, periosteum of bone, perichondrium of cartilage, and capsule around some internal organs (i.e. liver)
dense elastic connective tissue branching, densely packed elastic fibers that is able to stretch and recoil
dense elastic connective tissue is found in walls of large arteries, trachea, and vocal cords
muscle tissue cells that can contract with nervous system stimulation and cause movement (voluntary motion of body parts, contraction of the heart, and propulsion of material through digestive and urinary tracts)
three types of muscle tissue skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle tissue
skeletal muscle tissue aka striated or voluntary muscle tissue; it is primarily responsible for movement of the skeleton and does not contract unless stimulated by somatic nervous system (considered voluntary)
cardiac muscle tissue responsible for heart contraction, contains visible striations, and does not require nervous system to initiate a contraction (contraction initiated by specialized cardiac muscle cells)
smooth muscle tissue lacks striations seen in other tissues, appears smooth, and aka visceral muscle tissue, helps to protect movement through specific organs, and considered involuntary
where smooth muscle tissue is found... the walls of intestines, stomach, airways, bladder, uterus, and blood vessels
nervous tissue located within the brain, spinal cord, and nerves, consists of cells called neurons, and conains large number of glial cells
neurons receive, transmit, and process nerve impulses
glial cells do not transmit nerve pulses, but are responsible for protection, nourishment, and support
parts of neurons cell body, dendrites, and the axon
cell body houses the nucleus and organelles
dendrites shorter, more numerous process that receives incoming signals and transmits information
axon single, long process extrending from cell body and carries outgoing signals to other cells
organs structure composed of two or more tissue types and work together to perform specific complex functions
example of an organ stomach (contains all four tissue types)
stomach lined by epithelium, has areolar and dense connective tissue in the walls, contains three layers of smooth muscle in walls, and has abundant nervous tissue
purpose of epithelium in stomach secretes substances for chemical digestion of nutrients
purpose of areolar and dense connective tissue in walls of stomach houses blood vessels and nerves and provides shape and support
purpose of the three layers of smooth muscle in the walls of the stomach contract and relax to mix materials
purpose of nervous tissue in the stomach responsible for regulating muscle contraction and gland secretion
body membranes formed by epithelial tissue bound to underlying connective tissue that lines body cavities, covers viscera, and covers body's external surface
four types of body membranes mucous, serous, cutaneous, and synovial
mucous membrane aka mucosa, lines compartments that open to the external environment (i.e. digestive, respiratory, urinary, and reproductive tracts), and performs absorptive, protective and secretory functions
serous membrane lines body cavities that do not open to external environment and produces a watery serous fluid that is derived from blood plasma and reduces friction between opposing surfaces
cutaneous membrane aka skin, covers the external surface of the body and protects internal organs and prevents water loss
synovial membrane lines some joints in the body, and synovial fluid is secreted by the epithelial cells to reduce friction among moving bone parts and distribute nutrients to cartilage
Created by: Nicolekr



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