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What years did the renaissance happen 1375 - 1527
From what crises was europe recovering during the late middle ages recovering from losses in population bc of black death and political crisis of uncentralized monarchies
What place did the vernacular have in general communication? used to communicate literature and politics
what impact did imported american gold and silver have on science, military, and economics it spurred scientific invention, new weapons industry, African slave trade
what did Buckhardt argue about the renaissance? that it was a period the gave new importance to science + secular values and individualism where rational thought instead of religious
list 4 main characteristics of renaissance europe *transition from medieval to modern times, centralized govs, economy based on commerce, people/gov control culture
what made italy geographically unique natural gateway between east and west
what happened to italian city states in 13th and 14th centuries? became powerful bc of trade and eventually controlled rest of italy
How did merchant oligarchies become strengthened? warfare between pope's forces and emperor's forces weakened both groups, allowing oligarchies to seize power
Name the 5 major competitive states in Italy Milan, Florence, Venice, Papal states, kingdom of naples
What was the ciompi revolt uprising of poor in florence (feud between old rich and new rich, anarchy after black death, collapse of banking houses)
Why did the cities develop despotisms? *tyrannical rule social strife + competition for political power caused it
Who ruled venice? mechant oligarchy made of a patrician senate a and a juficical body called council of 10
describe 4 distincive rivaling social classes in florence grandi (rich nobles + merchants), popolo grosso (newly rich merhants), middle burgher (small business people), popolo minuto (poor)
Who was Cosimo de Medici? wealthiest florentine statesman who controlled the city by secretly controlling the signoria
define signoria governing council of powerful men representing different guilds
what was the podesta? despot whose main job was to maintain law + prder in city so business could continue
what were condottieri? military brokers who provided the despot with mercenary armies
what elements of society promoted renaissance culture? despots, republicans, secularized popes because they all wanted to increase reputation
what was the main ingredient for patronage great wealth
define humanism scholarly study of latin/greek classics both for its own sake + to revive ancient values
how did scholastics differ from humanists scholastics believed in tradition and authority, humanists classical and more open minded
who is francisco petrarch and what did he write father of humanism, (letters to the ancient dead, love sonnets)
Who was dante alighieri early humanist whose writings helped form italian vernacular literature
Who wrote the decameron? what was it about giovanni boccaccio, effects of black death in florence
what was the goal of humanist studies to acquire wisdom and move others to desire it
what should a successful courtier be like and who created this idea? one who has knowledge of ancient languages, military, athletics, music, has high moral character. created by casatiglione in book of courtier
Christine de Pisan = italian noblewoman who wrote treasure of the city of ladies which listed accomplishmnets of women in history
What was the florentine academy? gathering of florentine humanists who studied works of plato
why was platonism appealing to humanists it flattered human nature, emphasized eternal reasoning and morals talked about eternal sphere of being
What is the oration on the dignity of man? famous introduction to pico's (humanist) other writing that talks about human nature + how humans have freedom to be powerful or poor
how did humanists become critics of tradition guided by historical texts + scholarly ideals that conflcted with traditional bodies like church
why was valla popular among protestants his expose on the Donation of constantine and his defense of predestination against free will supporters
what great protestant reformer was influenced by humanists? martin luther
according to humanists, what is the purpose of education/civic humanism to promote individual virtue and public service
how was idea of civic humanism used in florence 3 humanist chancellors used rhetorical skills to rally florentines against naples + milan
what are the 2 sides of humanism deep scholarship and practical politics
why did the laity takeon a leading role in education, culture and religion the church lost power during late m ages. more educated lay, more in gov
what timeframe is considered the high renaissance 1450-1527
how did ren art differ from medieval art focused on natural world
what is chiascuro and linear perspective SHADING, asdjusting size to look more realsitic
who is giotto and what did he do father of renaissance painting, painted a more natural world
what made da vinci a true renaissance man "the universal person" had many skill sets
Which work of art is considered a perfect example of renaissance art school of athens by raphael
which work of art by michaelangelo considered perfect harmony david
what did pope julius II commision micheaelangelo to paint frescoes in vaticans sistine chapel
what is mannerism style of art more complex than high ren with more abnormalities, more freedom to artist
what caused demand for slaves to soar black death reduced labor supply
how common were slaves very common in every household
What was the treaty of lodi italian treaty that brought milan and naples into alliance with florence so italy could be united against foreign
Who was ludovico il Moro? what was his mistake milanese despot who allied with french against naples, but mistake was that france wanted milan
how did charles Viii repond to luduvicos call fast,
what was the league of venice venice, papal states, french emperor maximilian, ferdinand of aragon, allied these groups against french invasion
who was considered the most corrupt pope? alexander VI, used his papal power to get poltical careers for kids+ secure romagna
why was julius ii known as warrior pope very secular + military papacy
how did erasmus portray Julius II mocked him in satire julius exculded fROM heaveN
what were julius;s main accomplisments drove venetians out of romagna , helped form 2nd holy league, drove france out of italy
what did the concordat of bologna grant francis I control over the french clergy in exchange for saying the pope was more poweful than church councils
what was the result of concordat? set stage for habsburg valois wars
who was machiavelli? what did he believe italian humanist who said rulers should be harsh and ruthless
what did machiavelli say was answer to italy's problems to stop fighting + unite italy
what is virtu ability to make heroic decisions for good of people
who did machiavelli write prince for? lorenzo de medici
what happened to gov after 1450 fuedal monarchies -> centralized monarchies
who allied with king towns
how did warfare change in 15 and a16th centuries armies became national/professional, used artillery
what was the taille french tax on peasantry
what were 2 cornerstones of french nation building in 15th centry collapse of english empire after 100 years war, defeat of burgundy
strong nation is a 2 edged sword meaning? nation can harm others and itself as welll; france became too powerful
what unified spain marriage between isabella and ferdinand
what were isabella and ferdinand;s main accomplishments subdued nobility, secured borders, military conquests, christianized spain
what made spain a dominant power in 16th century anti french marriage alliances
what was the war of roses who on conflict between rival branches of english royal families yorks and and lancasters over who should get throne; lancasters
what dynasty dominated england tudor dynasty
how did henry vii unite england brought rival royal famlies together through marriage
what was the golden bull? agreement btwn german territories + emperor that established 7 member electoral college that elected emperor
what was the reichstag imperial diet that had more rep for small cities to stop fueding
how did northern humanism connect to reformation created climate favorable to relgious and education reforms taht the reformation promoted
what was the distinctive culture of norhtern humanists diverse backgrounds, wrote for laypeople, anti church
what is necessary for kingdom to be properly goverened for officials to be educated
significance of printing press more educated lay people, spreads ideas, harder for church to influence,
What did erasmus aspire to unite? classsical humanist ideas with pure christian ideals
what does the phrase philosophia christi mean simple, ethical piety in imitation of christ
why was the church unhappy with erasmus unhapy with his improvements on bible
who is the father of german humanism rudolf agricola
what was the reuchlin affiar reuchlin (pro jew christian) was attacked by an anti jew christian. lots of german humanists defended him
how did italian learning get to england? english scholars who took trips to italy
who is the best known english humanist, what did he write thomas more, wrote utopia
how did italian learning spread to france french invasions in italy
how did spanish humanism differ from eng/french/german it promoted strict catholicism
why did henry the navigator from portugal explore the african coast wanted gold + spices + spread christianity
what was the financial center of europe prior to exploring venice, it had access
waht did columbus voyage mark beginning of more than 3 centuries of spanish emprei in americas
what did conquests of aztecs and incas have in common? small, armed forces take huge empires, marked beginning of transformation of S Am into latin america
WHAT DID ROMAN catholic priests hope to do in america convert natives to christianity
who was bartolome de las casas dominican clergyman who criticized spanish treatment of natives in black legend
what were the 3 major parts of colonial ecnomy in latin america mining, agriculture, shipping
what was the hacienda large estate owned by spanish people
what is encomienda system grant to the right to the labor of specific #natives for a period of time
define repartimiento labor tax that required adult male indians to work for a spanish business for some days each yr
what happened to the native population of new spain? died from european viruses
impact of spices and precious metals on europe rise in prices and coinage --> inflation
what did new wealth allow gov to do? sponser basic research in printing, shipping, mining
how did social divisions indirectly prepare way for reformation made people criticize tradition and be more open to new ideas
Created by: mhaq.16