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HN 413 Test 1

M1-3: Plagiarism,safety, knife skills, measuring/mixing, food trends, conv

TermDefinition
Carbon Steel Easy to sharpen, Easily corrodes/discolors
Stainless Steel Difficult to sharpen, does not corrode or discolor
High Carbon Stainless Steel Easy to sharpen, does not corrode
Chef's knife -Peeling, trimming, slicing, chopping, mincing, filleting -Tip used for fine work such as peeling -Heel used for tasks requiring force
Utility Knife Light cutting, slicing, peeling
Boning Knife Separating raw meat from the bone
Paring Knife Multipurpose knife Paring, trimming
Slicer Portioning off thin slices of meat or poultry Serrated slicers are useful for cutting bread, tomatoes or angel food cake
Butcher Knife cutting raw meats
Cleaver Cutting through bone
Preliminary Cuts Trimming Peeling Squaring off Removing Fat
Squaring off cut preliminary cut cut away from top/bottom/sides/ends of round veggies
Basic Cuts Chopping Mincing Shredding/grating Slicing Chiffonade Rondelle
Chopping same size
Mincing thin, small, same size use chef's knife
Shredding/grating narrow strips
Slicing cut through keeping cut straight
Chiffonade herbs cut into fine shreds with chef's knife
Rondelle cylindrical food sliced
Precision Cuts Julienne/Batonnet Dicing
Types of Cuts Preliminary Basic Precision
Julienne matchstick 1/8 x 1/8 x 2"
Dicing food cut into cubes
Batonnet matchstick 1/4 x 1/4 x 2"
Brunoise dicing 1/8" cubes
Small Dice 1/4" cubes
Medium Dice 1/3" cubes
Large Dice 3/4" cubes
Oblique/Roll Cut cut cylindrical vegetables at a diagonal angle
Common Symptoms of Foodborne Illness Inflammation of the GI tract Nausea Abdominal cramps Diarrhea Vomiting
Individuals at greatest risk for foodborne illness Infants/young children Pregnant women Elderly Individuals with compromised immune systems
Foodborne Infection -illness resulting from ingestion of food containing large numbers of living bacteria or other microorganisms -80% of FBI -Ingested microorganismas grow in the host's intestines and cause and infection
Foodborne Intoxication -illness resulting from ingestion of food containing a toxin -20% of FBI -Toxins produced by bacteria growing on the food or by a chemical contaminant
Types of FB Illness Foodborne Infection Foodborne Intoxication
Hazards to Food Safety Biological,Chemical,Physical
Campylobacter Most common bacterial cause of diarrhea in the US. From raw and undercooked meat, poultry, raw milk, untreated water
Hazards to Food Safety: Biological Microorganisms (bacteria, mold, viruses), Animal Parasites, Natural toxins
Microorganisms bacteria, mold, viruses
Hazards to Food Safety: Chemical Agricultural, industrial
Hazards to Food Safety: Physical foreign objects in food
Clostrium Botulinum Prevent breathing muscles from moving air in and out of lungs. From home prepared foods, herbal oils, honey
E.Coli 0157:H7 Deadly. From hamburger, produce, milk.
Listeria monocytogenes listeriosis (preg/weak immune system), From soil, water, dairy, soft cheese, meat poultry, seafood, produce
Norovirus Diarrhea, from any food handled by an infected person
Salmonella most common cause of death. From eggs, poultry, meat, dairy, seafood, fruit, vegetables
Staphylococcus aureus bacterium makes toxins which cause vomiting. From high protein foods, ham, salad, bakery, dairy
Shigella Causes diarrhea. From poor hygiene, salad, milk, dairy, unclean water
Toxoplasma gondii causes CNS disorders-retardation, visual impairment, esp in children, preg. From seafood
Vibrio vulnificus causes gastroenteritis, primary septicemia in people with liver disease. From seafood
Environmental factors that foster bacterial growth Water, Oxygen, temperature, alkaline pH, time
Government Agencies in charge of food safety FDA FSIS CDC EPA ARS CSREES
Food and Drug Administration (FDA) enforces laws governing safety of domestic/imported foods. (not meat and poultry)
USDA Food Safety and Inspection Services (FSIS) enforces laws on safety of domestic/imported meats
Center for Disease Control (CDC) monitors outbreaks of foodborne illness, investigates causes, determines preventative measures
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Regulates Drinking water, approves use of pesticides
USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) research of ag practices and animal/crop safety
Cooperative State Research, Education and Extension Services (CSREES) develops research and educational programs on food safety for farmers and consumers
HACCP Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points
7 Steps of HACCP 1. Assess Hazards 2. Determine Critical Control Points 3. Establish standards at each CCP 4. Establish Procedures to monitor CCP 5. Establish Corrective Actions 6. Establish verification procedures 7. Est record keeping/documentation procedures
7 Steps of HACCP #1: Assess Hazards analyze process, identify hazards (are they bio/chem/phys?), list preventative measures to control (change temp, pH etc)
7 Steps of HACCP #2: Determine CCP Identify steps in production at which hazard can be prevented, controlled. (Steps in production can be raw, processing, shipping, consumption)
7 Steps of HACCP #3: Est Standards at each CCP Establish preventative measures with measurable limiits
7 Steps of HACCP #4: Est procedures to monitor CCP how and who will monitor temp, pH etc?
7 Steps of HACCP #5: Est corrective actions plans to discard hazards and correct process
7 Steps of HACCP #6: Est Verification procedures verify validity, adequacy of CCP, effectiveness of HACCP plan
7 Steps of HACCP #7: Est Recordkeeping/Documentation Procedures prepare and maintain written HACCP plan
Critical Control Points in Production Processing, Purchasing, Preparation, Sanitation, Storage
Hepatitis A Fecal Material. Symptoms include dark urine, fatigue, itching, nausea, vomiting for up to 6 weeks after contact. From contaminated water, fruits, veggies, shellfish, ice.
Temperature Danger Zone 40-140 F
1 lb = ? oz 16 oz
1 fl oz = ? T 2 T
1 kg = ? lbs 2.21 lbs
1 C = ? T 16 T
1 pint = ? C 2 C
1 qt = ? pints 2 pints
1 qt = ? C 4 C
1 gallon = ? qt 4 quarts
1 gallon = ? cups 16 cups
1 liter = ? C 4 cups + 3.5 Tbsp
12 T 3/4 C
8 T = ? C 1/2 C
1 gallon = ? qt 4 quarts
2 T sugar = ? oz 1 oz
2 T butter = ? oz 1 oz
4 T flour = ? oz 1 oz
1 stick of margarine = ? C 1/2 C (or 8T)
1 tsp of sugar or fat = ? g ~ 4 g
1 egg = ? mL ~45 mL
1 C = ? L 2.4 L
1 L = ? mL 1000 mL
Find ºF ºC x (9/5) + 32
Find ºC (ºF-32) x (5/9)
1 L = ? oz 33.8 oz
1 lb = ? kg .45 kg
1 oz = ? g 28.3 g
Types of Moist Heat Scalding, poaching, simmering, stewing, braising, parboiling, blanching, steaming
Moist Heat heat is transf by water, water based liquid or steam
Scalding 150 F/ 66 C. Large, still bubbles on bottom of pan
Poaching 160-180F/ 71-82C. Small, motionless bubbles on bottom of pan. For delicate foods.
Simmering just below boiling- >180F/ 82C. gently rising bubbles that barely break surface. Used for tough cuts of meat.
Stewing simmer ingredients in small to moderate amts of liquid in range or oven. Used for small pieces of meat. Liquid becomes sauce
Braising food simmered in small amt of liquid. Used for large pieces of meat that is generally browned prior.
Mirepoix chopped veggies
Boiling 212F/ 100 C. used for tough textures like meat, pasta.
Parboiling Partly cook, cook later
Blanching retain color, destroys bacteria, can be frozen.
Steaming Not good for spongy tough skin veg. can be done en papiollote.
Microwaving dry/radiation/moist. Radiation targets water in food.
Dry Heat Prep methods baking, roasting, broiling, grilling, barbecue, frying
Dry Heat higher temps can be reached (500/260C) moist can only reach 212.
Baking heat with hot air in oven. 300-425F/149-219C. Affected by rack position, pan color
Roasting similar to baking but used for meat/poultry. basted every 20 min to prevent drying. Sometimes seared prior.
Broiling food cooked UNDER intenstive heat 5-10 min only. Used only for tender foods/high moisture veg
Grilling Food cooked ABOVE heat
Marinade ingredients oil to protect food, acid to change texture, aromatics to flavor
Barbecuing slow cooked with zesty sauce over a long period of time and low temperature.
Frying cook in oil. Type depends on amt of fat. Decrease heat, increase fat absorption by food.
Pan-Broiling meat in pan, pour off fat as it accumulates
Sautee deglaze pan for sauce, foods should be naturally tender. High moisture veggies, high temp. Oil is ghee, veg or animal
Stir Fry high heat, small amt of oil. Constantly stir. Good for small tender cuts of meat, high moisture veggies. If veggies are dense, parboil prior
Pan Fry partially submerged in oil. Good for starchy veggies, small, tender cuts of meat
Deep Fry fully submerged, battered. Good for tender, small pcs.
Types of Heat Transfer Conduction, Convection, Radiation, Induction
Conduction Range or fryer. Heat flows from source to pan to contents of pan. Principle is to increase energy of molecules, which increases ability to transfer energy to neighboring molecules.
Convection Heated by circulating liquid or air currents. Also includes simmering, steaming, deep frying
Radiant Heat Broiling, grilling, microwaving.
Induction heat on flat surface range
Definition of a Calorie amount of energy required to raise 1 kg of water by 1ºC
Definition of Heat heat is a form of energy that results from rapid movement or vibration of molecules in a substance (ie, heat speeds up molecules).
High Altitude decreased BP of water, liquids evaporate faster, leavening gases expand quicker
Pressure cooking trapped steam builds pressure, decreases cooking time
1 g = ? mg 1000 mg
1000 g = ? kg 1 kg
1 oz = ? g 28.35 g
1 kg = ? lbs 2.21 lbs
1 liter = ? fl oz 33.8 fl oz
1000 mL = ? L 1 L
1000 L = ? kL 1 kL
1 T = ? fl oz 1/2 fl oz
1 C = ? fl oz 8 fl oz
1 pint = ? fl oz 16 fl oz
1 quart = ? fl oz 32 fl oz
1 gallon 128 fl oz
Definition of Cuisine a style or method of cooking, esp. as characteristic of a particular country, region, or establishment.
Trend a general direction in which something is developing or changing.
Fad an intense and widely shared enthusiasm for something, esp. one that is short-lived and without basis in the object's qualities; a craze.
Definition Organic Limits the use of synthetic materials during production. promotes biodiversity, biological cycles and soil biological activity. Based on minimal use of off-farm inputs and on management practices that restore, maintain and enhance ecological harmony
Sustainable Farming Meet food and fiber needs.Enhance envir quality/natural resource base. Efficient use of nonrenewable/on-farm resources and integrate natural cycles and controls. Sustain the eco viability of farm operas.Enhance the qual of life for farmers and society.
Created by: susandavis521