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Intensive French

CSCA - Classical French 2

LA VARENNE Father of Classical French cuisine. La Cuisiner Francois – savory book 1651. Le Patissier Francois – Pastry 1653.
W/O More fat (oil) than liquid, for example, Hollandaise and Mayonnaise.
O/W More liquid (water) than fat (oil), for example, Veloute and Béchamel.
CONCENTRATED More solute than solvent in a mixture. (Heavy sugar syrup, frozen concentrated orange juice).
DILUTED More solvent than solute (thin sugar syrup – for soaking cakes; orange juice made with water).
EMULSION Small droplets of liquid suspended and dispersed in another liquid with which it is not miscible (the two liquids repel each other). Examples of emulsions are Hollandaise and Beurre Blanc.
FDIP Particles in a suspension that do not dissolve.
DEMULSIFICATION The deliberate breaking of an emulsion to achieve another product. Three ways: heating or freezing, chemical, or mechanical.
EMULSIFYING AGENT The third ingredient in an emulsion that stabilizes the emulsion. Also a stabilizing agent that helps to thicken or give viscosity to the emulsion. Five classifications: animal source, FDIP, vegetable source, Cellulose derivative, mechanical.
CASEIN A natural emulsifying agent in butter. Aids in emulsification, as in Beurre Blanc. Casein is classified as an animal source. Definition of casein (From Encarta) is a group of proteins precipitated when milk is mildly acidified.
LACTOSE Milk sugar that occurs naturally in milk. Lactose is less sweet than sucrose.
SOLUTION Exists when particles of a solute are truly dissolved in a solvent to produce one clean, uniform, homogenous mixture. (Salt and water; sugar)
SUSPENSION Mixture always containing fine particles of an insoluble solid suspended in a liquid (for example, cornstarch in water; pepper flakes)
SOLVENT Refers to a liquid in a solution (water in a sugar syrup or water in a saline solution).
SOLUTE Refers to the truly dissolved particles in a solution, for example, sugar in a sugar syrup or salt in a saline solution.
INFUSION To impart flavor into liquids. Achieved by different methods: steeping and reducing. For example, Béarnaise sauce, tea, flavored oils.
PATE A forcemeat product, traditionally and classically, prepared en croute and baked.
EN CROUTE Refers to a crust. Wrapped in pastry and baked
TERRINE A forcemeat product that is cooked in a vessel or a terrine mold, baked in a bain marie without a crust Earthenware dish.
FARCE To force or stuff. A basic filling for pâté and terrine. Forcemeat.
SEL EPICE A classic spice mixture used to season forcemeat. Salt and spice – cinnamon, thyme, nutmeg, coriander, peppercorns, paprika, garlic, salt.
PANADE A binder of breadcrumbs, flour, rice, etc., for forcemeat. Also can be a choux-like mixture for mousselines and quenelles.
ASPIC A savory jelly or gelatinized clarified stock used as a coating or covering for terrines, pates, and cold food appetizers.
Created by: CSCAStudy