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Anat Lab Landmarks 1

Anatomy Landmarks EXAM 1

Head of humerus Articulates with the glenoid fossa
Anatomical Neck of Humerus Indistinct area immediately distal to the head
Lesser Tubercle of Humerus Anteriorly, inferior to the head
Greater Tubercle of humerus Large projections lateral to the head
Bicipital Groove/Intertubercular Sulcus of humerus Groove between the tubercles
Surgical Neck of Humerus Indefinite area inferior to the tubercles where the bone narrows (fractures are fairly common here)
Deltoid Tuberosity of humerus On the anterolateral surface, just superior to midshaft
Spiral groove/Sulcus of the Radial Nerve of humerus Shallow groove on the superior posterior surface passing inferiorly from medial to lateral
Capitulum of Humerus Round, anterolateral articulating surface-- articulates with the head of the radius
Trochlea of Humerus Pulley-like medial articulating surface-- articulates with the trochlear notch of the ulna
Radial Fossa of Humerus Slight depression immediately proximal to the capitulum, on the anterior surface-- receives the head of the radius in forearm flexion
Coronoid Fossa of Humerus -Depression immediately proximal to the trochlea on the anterior surface* receives the coronoid process of the ulna in forearm flexion
Olecranon Fossa of Humerus - Large depression immediately proximal to the trochlea on the posterior surface - Receives the olecranon process in forearm extension
Medial Epicondyle of humerus - projection medial to the trochlea
Sulcus of Ulnar Nerve of humerus - On posterior, inferior surface of the medial epicondyle
Lateral Epicondyle of humerus - Projection lateral to the capitulum
Radius Lateral bone of the forearm
Head of radius Disk-like proximal end which articulates with the capitulum on its proximal aspect and with the radial notch of the ulna on its medial aspect
Neck of Radius Narrowed region immediately distal to the head
Radial Tuberosity of Radius anterior surface, distal to the neck--- an insertion site for biceps brachii
Styloid process of the Radius Bluntly pointed projection on the lateral, distal surface
Ulnar Notch of the Radius Depression on the medial, distal surface for articulation with the head of the ulna
Ulna medial bone of the forearm
Trochlear Notch/Semilunar Notch of the Ulna Large, anterior proximal indentation--- articulates with the trochlea
Olecranon process of the Ulna Large posterior proximal projection
Coronoid Process of the Ulna Anterior lip of the trochlear notch
Radial notch of the Ulna Indentation on the proximal lateral surface for articulation with the head of the radius
Ulnar Tuberosity at the base of the coronoid process
Head of the Ulna Distal end
Styloid process of Ulna Dorsal medial projection off the head of the ulna
# of bones in the skull 28 bones
how many bones in the vertebral column 26 bones
How many ribs do you have? 24 total bones
# of bones in the appendicular skeleton 126 bones
# of total bones in the upper extremity 64 total bones 32 per side
# of total bones in the lower extremity 62 total bones 31 per side
Acetabulum of OS Coxa Concave lateral articular surface---formed by ilium, ischium, and pubis
Acetabular Notch Incomplete wall on the inferior surface of the acetabulum
Acetabular Fossa The rough central area of the acetabulum
Lunate surface Smooth articulating surface on the periphery of the acetabulum
Obturator Foramen Large foramen inferior to the acetabulum---bounded by pubis and ischium
Pubis contributes to the acetabulum
Superior Ramus of the Pubis Extends from body to articulate with the opposite member
Inferior Ramus of the Pubis Inferiorly, from the medial end of the superior ramus
Pubic symphysis Articulation between two pubic bones
Pubic Tubercle Projection on cranial border of the medial portion of the superior ramus
Pubic Crest Medial, from the pubic tubercle to the medial border of the pubis
ilium contributes to the acetabulum
Iliac crest superior margin of the wing
Anterior superior Iliac Spine Anterior terminus of the iliac crest
Anterior inferior Iliac spine On anterior wing, inferior to the anterior superior iliac spine
Posterior superior Iliac Spine Posterior terminus of the iliac crest
Posterior inferior Iliac spine On posterior wing, inferior to the posterior superior iliac spine
Greater Sciatic Notch on ilium Large indentation on the posterior aspect between the posterior inferior iliac spine and the ischial spine---Involves both the ilium and ischium, but primarily the ilium
Iliac Fossa Inner, slightly concave surface of the wing
Auricular Surface of ilium Posterior "ear shaped" surface which articulates with the sacrum
Iliac Tuberosity Roughed inner area, superior to the auricular surface--- site of ligament attachments
Superior Gluteal Line (posterior gluteal line) Outer surface of the wing, passing posterior from the crest towards the greater sciatic notch
Middle Gluteal line (Anterior Gluteal line) Anterior and inferior to the posterior gluteal line, curving from the anterior aspect toward the greater sciatic notch
Inferior Gluteal line Begins at the notch between the two anterior spines and curves toward the greater sciatic notch
Ischium contributes to the acetabulum
Ischial tuberosity Large posterior, inferior protuberance
Ischial Spine Sharp posterior projection, superior to the ischial tuberosity
Lesser sciatic notch Indentation between the ischial spine and ischial tuberosity
Femur Thigh bone, articulating with the acetabulum
Head of Femur Ball-like articulating surface on proximal end of the bone
Fovea Capitis (Fovea of the head of femur) pit in the head - for attachment of a ligament (ligamentum teres femoris)
Neck of Femur Constriction inferior to the head
Greater trochanter Large lateral projection at the base of the neck
Trochanteric Fossa Depression on the medial side of the greater trochanter
Lesser Trochanter Posterior, medial projection at the base of the neck
Intertrochanteric Crest ridge between the two trochanters on the posterior surface
Intertrochanteric Line Small ridge between the two trochanters on the anterior surface ( for attachment of the iliofemoral ligament)
Linea Aspera Prominent longitudinal ridge on the posterior surface---having a medial and lateral lip
Gluteal tuberosity of femur Roughened area atop the lateral lip of the linea aspera (for the attachment of the gluteus maximus)
Popliteal surface of femur Smooth, triangular area on the posterior distal femur where the lips of linea aspera diverge
Medial and lateral Condyles of femur Distal articulating surfaces
Intercondylar fossa posterior depression between the condyles
Medial and lateral epicondyles of femur Roughed projections on the medial and lateral surfaces of the condyles
Adductor tubercle projection on the medial surface of the medial epicondyle---for the attachment of adductor magnus
Patella bony structure of knee that is embedded in the patellar ligament
Tibia medial bone of the leg
Medial and lateral condyles of Tibia Proximal, expanded ends bearing articular surfaces
Tibial tuberosity Roughened area on the anterior surface inferior to the condyle--- for attachment of the patellar ligament
Soleal Line On superior 1/3 of posterior surface- extends obliquely downward and medial--- for attachment of the soleus
Medial malleolus of tibia Medial projection off the medial end
Fibula lateral (little) bone of the leg
Head of fibula the proximal end of the fibula
Styloid process of fibula pointed apex of the head
Lateral malleolus expanded distal, lateral end
Calcaneus big bone in the ankle know to be in the group called tarsals
Sustentaculum Tali Shelf-like projection on the superior medial aspect---articulates with the talus superiorly
Cuboid tarsal bone in the foot
vertebrosternal ribs ribs (1-7) --- also called true ribs --- articulate with the sternum via the chondral cartillage
Vertebrochondral ribs ribs (8,9,10) --- known as false ribs --- attach indirectly to the sternum
Vertebral ribs ribs (11,12) --- known as floating and false ribs --- not attached anteriorly
False ribs vertebrochondral + vertebral ribs
True ribs vertebrosternal ribs
Head of typical rib has two FACETS for articulation with two vertebral bodies, and CREST for articulation with the intervertebral disc --- posterior
Neck of a typical rib just lateral to the head of the rib
Tubercle of a typical rib has articulating facet for articulation with the transverse process and a non-articulating part where a ligament attaches --- just lateral to the neck
Angle of a typical rib lateral to the tubercle
Costal groove of a typical rib on the inferior, inner aspect shelters intercostal nerve, artery and vein
Atypical ribs Ribs (1,2,11,12)
Rib #1 atypical rib --- has a single facet on the head --- Scalene tubercle --- grooves for subclavian artery and vein
Groove for Subclavian artery on rib #1 --- medial to the groove of the subclavian vein
Groove for subclavian vein on rib # 1 --- lateral to the groove of the subclavian artery
Scalene tubercle? on rib #1
Atypical ribs that have only 1 facet ribs 1, 11, 12
Atypical ribs that do not have tubercles ribs 11, 12
Rib #2 atypical rib --- has a tuberosity for serratus anterior muscle
Rib #11 atypical rib --- has single facet on the head --- no tubercle (does not articulate with transverse process)
Rib #12 atypical rib --- single facet on the head --- no tubercle (does not articulate with transverse process)
Sternum composed of 3 parts Manubrium, body, and xiphoid process
Manubrium articulates with the first rib and the clavicle --- has a suprasternal notch/Jugular notch and sternal angle
Suprasternal notch/Jugular notch on the superior surface of the manubrium
Sternal angle junction between the manubrium and the body --- articulates with the 2nd rib
Body of the sternum articulates with the costal cartilage of ribs 3-6
Xiphoid process inferior part of the sternum --- rib #7 articulates with the xiphi-sternal junction
xiphi-sternal junction junction between xiphoid and sternum where rib #7 articulates
Identify the landmarks of a typical adult vertebra body, lamina, pedicle, vertebral arch, Vertebral foramen, superior articulating process, inferior articulating process, inferior vertebral notch, superior vertebral notch, transverse process, spinous process, superior and inferior articulating facet
5 groups of vertebrae (be able to identify them) cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, coccygeal
transverse foramen foramen that are just lateral to the vertebral body and anterior to the pedicle
Groove for spiral nerve gutter that the anterior and posterior tubercles create (inside the transverse process)
Bifid Spinous process most posterior projection of the vertebra
Anterior tubercle of the transverse process makes up the anterior part of the "gutter"
posterior tubercle of the transverse process makes up the posterior part of the "gutter"
Uncinate processes also known as the superior lateral lips --- located on the superior body
Inferior lips (anterior and posterior) located on the inferior body
Orientation of the intervertebral facets on a cervical vertebra facing anteriorly and posteriorly
Transverse costal facets facing anteriolateraly on the transverse processes of the thoracic vertebrae
superior and inferior costal facets know as demi facet/full facets --- ???
superior/inferior notch on thoracic vertebrae? inferior notch --- inferior to the pedicle
Orientation of intervertebral facets on thoracic vertebra superior faces posterior and inferior faces anterior
Mamillary process on lumbar vertebrae --- on posterior superior articular process --- multifidis attaches here
Accessory process on lumbar vertebrae --- lateral to the superior articular process and medial to the transverse process --- longissimis muscle attaches here
Sacral canal canal on the posterior side of the sacrum --- anterior to the median sacral crest
Sacral hiatus inferior opening of the sacral canal on the dorsal surface
Anterior and posterior (pelvic and dorsal) sacral foramina foramina on the pelvic and dorsal side of the sacrum --- 8 total
Transverse ridges of sacrum 4 ridges between foramina on the superior (pelvic) side of the sacrum
Lateral sacral crest 2 crests lateral to the foramina on the posterior (dorsal) side
Median sacral crest crest in the median of the sacrum on the posterior (dorsal) side
Articular surface of sacrum articulates with the auricular surface of the ilium
Sacral promontory superior ridge on the pelvic side of the sacrum
Superior articular process of the sacrum projections on the superior dorsal/posterior side of the sacrum
coccygeal horn superior bump on the posterior side
Atlas C1 atypical vertebrae
Anterior arch of the atlas makes up 1/5 of the vertebral arch --- on the anterior side
anterior tubercle of the atlas anterior bump on the anterior arch of the atlas
Posterior arch of the atlas makes up 2/5 of the vertebral arch --- on the posterior side
posterior tubercle of the atlas posterior bump on the posterior arch of the atlas
Facet for dens on the atlas articulates with the dens/odontoid process of the axis --- posterior side of the anterior arch
Axis also called epistropheus --- C2 vertebrae
Odontoid process/dens large process that articulates with the atlas
facet for the atlas of the axis anterior part of the dens/odontoid process
Created by: Enorum1109



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