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Dragon Rises Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 2

matter anything that has mass and volume
mass amount of matter in a body. stays constant.
weight force of gravity on matter. not constant.
chemistry science of the structure and the interactions of matter.
3 states of matter solid, liquid, gas
chemical elements all forms of matter are made up of these
element simplest form of matter to have unique chemical properties
an element... cannot be split into a simpler form by ordinary chemical reactions
elements that make up 99% of human body mass Oxygen (65%), Carbon (18%), Hydrogen (10%), Nitrogen (3%), Calcium (1.5%), Phosphorous (1.0%)
Major elements for biological life O(xygen), C(arbon), N(itrogen), H(ydrogen)
Minor elements for biological (about 3.8%) Ca, P, K, S, Na, Cl, Fe, Mg
atom smallest indivisible unit of an element that can have an independent existence
nucleus center of the atom - made up of protons and neutrons
protons single positive charge, 1 atomic mass unit (amu)
neutron no charge, mass = 1amu
electron single negative charge, very low mass. found in concentric clouds surrounding the nucleus. determine the chemical properties of an atom.
an atom is electrically neutral because of... the number of electrons being equal to the number of protons
the number of electrons available in the first energy level of an atom 2
the number of electrons available in the second energy level of an atom 8
the number of electrons available in the third energy level of an atom 8
the number of electrons available in the fourth energy level of an atom 18
the number of electrons in H(ydrogen)'s valence shell 1
a valence shell that is filled with it's maximum number of electrons is stable, rarely forms compounds
a valence shell that is missing a number of electrons in its valence shell is unstable, and likely to form compounds
atomic number number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
mass number the number of protons and neutrons in an atom
atomic mass (atomic weight) sum of the weights of an atom's protons and neutrons
isotope varieties of an element that have the same number of protons (same atomic number) but differ in the number of neutrons and therefore in atomic mass/weight
isotopes of an element are chemically... similar, having the same number of valence electrons
all isotopes of an element... have the same chemical properties
nuclei decay occurs in unstable isotopes, resulting in stable states for the atom - as decay occurs, radiation is emitted
radioisotopes unstable isotopes that give off radiation - every element has at least one radioisotope
radioactivity radioisotopes decay to stable isotopes releasing radiation; we are all mildly radioactive
physical half-life of radioisotopes time needed for 50% to decay into a more stable state; nuclear power plants create radioisotopes
biological half-life of radioisotopes time required for 50% to disappear from the body; decay and physiological clearance
high-energy radiation ejects electrons from atoms and converts atoms into ions. is deadly in high doses, and mutagenic and carcinogenic in low doses.
high-energy radiation does this to human tissue... destroys molecules and produces dangerous free radicals and ions
sources of radiation include UV light, X-rays, nuclear decay (alpha, beta, and gamma waves)
alpha particles are dangerous if inside the body - 2 protons and 2 neutrons, cannot penetrate the skin
beta particles dangerous if inside the body - have a free electron, can penetrate the skin by a few millimeters
gamma particles are emitted from uranium and plutonium - are penetrating, very dangerous gamma rays
sieverts (Sv) unit of radiation exposure - 5 Sv or more is usually fatal
harmful radiation effects Acute or prolonged chronic dose: results in radiation sickness. Acute radiation dose: large dose (10 rad or greater, to the whole body) delivered during a short period of time
harmful radiation effects Genetic effects appear in future generations of exposed person as a result of radiation damage to reproductive cells
harmful radiation effects UV radiation on skin
beneficial radiation effects radiation therapy; tracers like iodine for thyroid therapy and thallium for blood flow in stress tests
molecules chemical particles composed of two ore more atoms from the same or different elements held together by chemical bonds
compounds a molecule composed of two ore more different elements. can be broken down into components by chemical means
molecular formula identifies constituent elements and how many atoms of each are present
structural formula location of each atom, reveals structural isomers
molecular weight of a compound is the sum of atomic weights of atoms
chemical reactions... transform matter
atoms react with other atoms through chemical bonding, which occurs between atoms when... there are vacancies in their valence (outermost) electron shell.
a chemical bond is an electrostatic attractive force that holds atoms together or attracts one molecule to another in a chemical reaction
valence electrons are responsible for holding two ore more atoms together in a chemical bond by SHARING or TRANSFERRING valence electrons.
electronegativity of an atom the tendency of an atom to acquire electrons
ionic bond relatively weak attraction between an anion and a cation. easily disrupted in water, as when salt dissolves
covalent bond sharing of one or more pairs of electrons between nuclei
single covalent bond sharing of one electron pair
double covalent sharing of two electron pairs. often occurs between carbon atoms, between carbon and oxygen, and between carbon and nitrogen.
nonpolar covalent covalent bond in which electrons are equally attracted to both nuclei. may be single or double. strongest type of chemical bond.
polar covalent covalent bond in which electrons are more attracted to one nucleus than the other, resulting in slightly positive and negative regions in one molecule. may be single or double.
hydrogen bond weak attraction between polarized molecules or between polarized regions of the same molecule. Important in the three-dimensional folding and coiling of large molecules. Easily disrupted by temperature and pH changes.
Van der Waals force Weak, brief attraction due to random disturbances in the electron clouds of adjacent atoms. Weakest of all bonds.
ions and polar covalent molecules... have + or - charge and so dissolve easily in water.
covalent bond occurs when atoms share electrons in an effort to fill their valence shells. No donating / losing of electrons (AKA oxidation and reduction).
the strongest of all chemical bonds covalent bond
bond that most commonly occurs when two ore more non-metals bond covalent bond
atoms in compound... have a similar tendency for electrons
bonds that are found in biological molecules covalent bond - crucial for life - found in water molecules
weakest of bond types, 'transient' bonds hydrogen bonds
hydrogen bonds form between slightly positive hydrogen atom in one molecule and a slightly negative oxygen or nitrogen atom in another
hydrogen bonds between different water molecules... will form between a hydrogen atom of one water molecule and an unshared oxygen electron of a neighboring water molecule
hydrogen bonds play an important role in physiology via these structures: protein structures, DNA structure
bonds within a water molecule polar covalent bond (O partial -, H partial +)
bonds between different water molecules hydrogen bond
ions charged particles with unequal number of protons and electrons
tend to give up electrons... elements with one to three valence electrons
tend to gain electrons... elements with four to seven valence electrons
ionization transfer of electrons from one atom to another (increasing the stability of the valence shell)
an ionic bond forms... between metals (left stair of periodic table) and non-metals (right stair of periodic table)
ionic bonds produce... ionic compounds
anion atom that gains electrons, producing a net negative charge
cation atom that loses electrons, producing a net positive charge
ions with opposite charges attract one another
ions with like charges repel each other
ionic compounds in solution... easily conduct electricity
ionic compounds tend to form... crystalline solids with high melting temperatures
ionic compounds dissolve easily... in water and other polar solvents
most abundant extracellular anion Chlorine (Cl-)
most abundant intracellular anion proteins and phosphates
most abundant extracellular cation sodium (Na+)
most abundant intracellular cation potassium (K+)
electrolytes salts that ionize in water and form solutions capable of conducting an electric current
electrolytes are important for... chemical reactivity; osmitic effects (influence water movement); electrical effects on nerve and muscle tissue
electrolyte balance... is one of the most important considerations in patient care
examples of the effects of electrolyte imbalances muscle cramps, brittle bones, coma, cardiac arrest
free radicals atoms or groups of atoms with unpaired (odd number) electrons in the outermost orbital. Formed when weak bonds split forming unstable atoms.
free radicals are produced by... the effects of environment (radiation, pollution ,etc), normal metabolism, the body's immune system
ways in which free radicals cause tissue damage they can react with important cellular components such as DNA or the cell membrane - cells may function poorly or die due to reaction. can cause cancer, death of heart tissue, and aging.
antioxidants donate electrons to free radicals in order to neutralize their effects
common antioxidants in diet selenium, vitamin E, vitamin C, carotenoids
energy the capacity to do work, to move something. all body activities are a form of work.
potential energy energy stored in an object because of its position or internal state. not doing work at the time.
chemical energy potential energy stored in the bonds of molecules
free energy potential energy available in a system to do useful work
kinetic energy energy in motion, energy actively doing work
heat kinetic energy of molecular motion
electromagnetic energy kinetic energy of moving packets of radiation called photons
common unit: calorie (cal) amount of heat needed to raise 1 gm of water by 1 degree C
common unit: SI unit for energy: joule
1 cal = ? joules 4.184 joules
conservation of energy (1st law of thermodynamics) Energy cannot be created or destroyed but can be converted from one form to another
the total amount of energy at the end of a reaction... is the same as the amount at beginning of reaction
chemical energy in food is changed to various forms... but the total stays the same
entropy (2nd law of thermodynamics) energy transfer will always result in a greater amount of disorder in the universe
movement toward disorder... is a spontaneous process
measure of disorder is... entropy - greater disorder = greater entropy
chemical reaction process in which covalent or ionic bonds are formed ore broken
chemical equation symbolizes the course of a chemical reaction. reactants on the left -> products on the right.
classes of chemical reactions are: decomposition reactions, synthesis reactions, exchange reactions
decomposition reactions breakdown of complex molecules (eg carbohydrates, fats, proteins) to simpler ones. ex: AB -> A + B. Energy is released as ATP and used in anabolic reactions.
synthesis reactions two ore more small molecules combine to form a larger one (eg proteins from amino acids, glycogen from glucose). A + B -> AB. Energy for synthesis is derived from catabolic reactions.
exchange reactions two molecules exchange atoms or groups of atoms. partly synthesis and partly decomposition. AB+CD -> ABCD -> AC+BD
reversible reactions can go in either direction under different circumstances, symbolized with double-headed arrow in a chemical equation. Occurs in respiratory, urinary, and digestive physiology.
oxidation rnx loss of electrons
reduction rnx gain of electrons
oxidation any chemical reaction in which a molecule gives up electrons and releases energy; the molecule is oxidized in the process
oxidizing agent the electron acceptor molecule in an oxidation reaction. oxygen is often involved as the electron acceptor.
reduction any chemical reaction in which a molecule gains electrons and energy; the molecule is reduced when it accepts electrons
reducing agent molecule that donates electrons in an oxidation/reduction reaction
redox reaction oxidation/reduction reaction
the oxidation of one molecule... is always accompanied by the reduction of another
in redox reactions, electrons are often transferred... as hydrogen atoms
molecular motion and collision basis for chemical reactions
reactions occur when... molecules collide with enough force and the correct orientation
molecular reaction rates are affected by... concentration, temperature, catalysts, state of molecules, pressure
when reactants are more concentrated... reaction rates increase
when the temperature rises... reaction rates increase
catalysts substances that temporarily bond to reactants, hold them in favorable position to react with each other. may change the shape of reactants in ways that make them more likely to react.
catalysts speed up reactions... without permanent change to themselves
catalysts hold reactant molecules... in correct orientation for reaction
catalysts are not... permanently consumed or changed by the reaction
enzymes... are the most important biological catalysts
metabolic pathways are chains of reactions with each step usually catalyzed by a different enzyme
terms relevant to metabolic pathway reactions initial reactant, intermediates, end product
regulation of metabolic pathways activation or deactivation of the enzymes
cell activity in the regulation of metabolic pathways cells can turn on or off pathways when end products are needed and shut them down when end products are not needed
an enzyme is defined as... a protein catalyst
an enzyme... controls chemical reactions
an enzyme... lowers activation energy and increases speed of reactions in cells without themselves being changed
an enzyme... has action on a specific substrate or raw material
a substrate... binds to an active site on an enzyme molecule
the binding of a substrate to an active site on an enzyme molecule forms... an enzyme-substrate complex - highly specific fit, a "lock and key"
an enzyme (in the enzyme-substrate specificity)... breaks covalent bonds between monomers in substrate
activation energy minimum energy from outside source required before a reaction can occur
examples of non-protein cofactors iron, copper, zinc, magnesium, calcium ions (all inorganic)
nonprotein cofactors are required by... about 2/3rds of human enzymes
certain cofactors bind to an enzyme... and induce a change in its shape, which activates the active site
cofactors are... essential to function
coenzymes assist enzyme function
coenzymes are organic cofactors derived from... water-soluble vitamins of B complex
metabolism all the chemical reactions of the body
catabolism energy-releasing (exergonic) decomposition reactions
anabolism energy-storing (endergonic) synthesis reactions
these reactions break covalent bonds catabolic reactions
these reactions produce smaller molecules catabolic reactions
these reactions release useful energy catabolic reactions
these reactions require energy input anabolic reactions
these reactions produce proteins or fats anabolic reactions
these reactions are driven by the energy that catabolic reactions release anabolic reactions
these two types of reactions are inseparably linked anabolic and catabolic reactions
a synthesis reaction is an... anabolic reaction
a decomposition reaction is a... catabolic reaction
breaking down complex molecules into smaller ones... releases energy, part of a catabolic or decomposition reaction
building complex molecules from simpler ones... use energy, part of anabolic or synthesis reactions
energy is released from reactants during this type of reaction catabolic/decomposition
energy is absorbed from reactants during this type of reaction anabolic/synthesis
these types of reactions do not require energy so usually occur spontaneously decomposition/catabolic
these types of reactions require energy and do not occur spontaneously anabolic/synthetic
a decomposition or catabolic reaction is also known as an... exergonic or exothermic reaction (releases energy)
an anabolic or synthesis reaction is also known as an... endergonic or endothermic reaction (absorbs energy)
exergonic/exothermic reactions often give off heat, which causes the product to feel hot
metabolic pathways ending in "lyses" are catabolic - lyses means "to break down"
metabolic pathways ending in "genesis" are anabolic - genesis means "to create"
glycogenolysis glycogen breakdown
glycogenesis glycogen synthesis
lipolyses lipid breakdown
lipogenesis fatty acid synthesis
glycolyses glucose breakdown
glycogenesis glucose synthesis
these compounds always contain carbon organic compounds
these compounds always have covalent bonds organic compounds
these compounds usually contain hydrogen organic compounds
these compounds make up about 38-43% of the human body organic compounds
these compounds lack carbon inorganic compounds
these compounds have simple structures inorganic compounds
these compounds may have ionic or covalent bonds inorganic compounds
these compounds make up about 60% of the body (mostly water) inorganic compounds
examples of inorganic compounds water, salts, acids, bases
the most abundant and important inorganic compound water
the structure of water polar covalent bonds and a V-shaped molecule - this structure gives water many properties that account for its ability to support life
properties of water that help it support life solvency, cohesion, adhesion, chemical reactivity, thermal stability
the universal solvent water
water is a universal solvent because... it is able to dissolve the most solutes due to the polar covalent bond and the "bent" V shape
hydrophilic substances that dissolve in water
ions and polar covalent bonds are... hydrophilic. they dissolve easily in water (sugar, salt)
hydrophibic substances that do not dissolve in water
molecules that are non-polar covalent or neutral are... hydrophobic. examples are fats, oils, petroleum products. they are not water-soluble.
water cannot break down... hydrophobic compounds.
virtually all metabolic reactions depend on... the solvency of water
water has a high degree of adhesion... because of the polar nature tendency of one substance to cling to another
attraction of water to molecules of capillary... causes the water to travel up
cohesion is... the tendency of like molecules to cling to each other
hydrogen bonds make water... very cohesive
water's cohesiveness... enables water to form droplets
surface tension is a result of... the strong cohesion between H of one molecule and the O of another (hydrogen bonds in water)
for water, chemical reactivity is... the ability to participate and serve as medium for most chemical reactions (hydrolysis and synthesis/dehydration rnx)
water ionizes... into H+ and OH-
water ionizes... other chemicals (acids and salts)
water is involved in these kinds of reactions... hydrolysis and dehydration synthesis
water is a... lubricant. major component of mucus and other lubricants in the body (in joins, cavities, GI tract)
the internal temperature of the body... is helped to be stabilized by water
inorganic compound in the body with a high heat capacity water
water absorbs heat... without changing temperature very much
hydrogen bonds inhibit temperature increases... by inhibiting molecular motion
mixture consists of substances physically blended but not chemically combined, and can be separated in a similar fashion
in our bodies, most mixtures... consist of chemicals dissolved or suspended in water
solution consists of particles of matter called the solute mixed with a more abundant substance (usually water) called the solvent
solute + solvent = solution
a solute can be... a gas, solid, or liquid
solutions are defined by these properties: solute particles under 1nm; solute particles do not scatter light; will pass through most membranes; will not separate on standing
the most common colloids in the body... are mixtures of protein and water
many colloids in the body... can change from liquid to gel state within and between cells
colloids are defined by these properties: particles range from 1-100nm in size; scatter light and are usually cloudy; particles are too large to pass through semipermeable membrane; particles remain permanently mixed with the solvent when mixture stands
suspensions are defined by these properties: particles exceed 100nm; too large to penetrate selectively permeable membranes; cloudy or opaque in appearance; separates on standing.
an emulsion... is a suspension of one liquid in another. ex: fat in breast milk.
electrolytes inorganic substances that form ions when dissolved in water, a process of separation known as ionization.
three types of electrolytes acids, bases, salts
acid + base -> salt + water
an acid produces... H+
a base absorbs... H+
a proton donor acid. releases H+ ions in water.
a proton acceptor base. accepts H+ ions, and re-releases OH- in water.
pH is a measure derived from... the molarity of H+ (molarity deals with concentration per volume)
a pH of 7.0 is neutral (H+ = OH-)
a pH of less than 7.0 is acidic (H+ > OH-)
a pH of greater than 7.0 is basic (H+ < OH-)
pH is a measurement of molarity of H+ on a... logarithmic scale
a change of one number on the pH scale... represents a 10-fold change in H+ concentration
a solution with pH of 4.0 compared to 5.0 is 10 times as acidic
a corrosive burn of the skin with a sour taste is characteristic of an acid
a low pH is characteristic of an acid
turns blue litmus paper red acid
reacts with carbonates to form carbon dioxide, water, and a salt acid
examples of acids vinegar, aspirin, lemon juice
corrosive with a soapy feel is characteristic of a base
a pH greater than 7 describes a base
turns red litmus paper blue base
salts are composed... of cations (+ ions) and anions (- ions)
an acid plus a base yields water and salt
the pH of a solution may be... acidic, basic, or neutral
these solutions conduct electric current fused salts and aqueous salts solutions
many essential chemical elements in ICF and ECF are provided by ions (ex: Na+ and K+)
pH of blood ranges from 7.35 to 7.45
deviations from 7.35 to 7.45 blood pH lead to... tremors, paralysis, and even death
the body uses buffers to resist... changes in pH
slight pH disturbances can... disrupt physiological functions and alter drug reactions
buffer systems in the body... ensure pH of fluids inside and outside the cells remains almost constant
buffers are chemicals that... replace strong acids or bases with weak ones (carbonic acid - bicarbonate buffer system)
organic chemistry the study of compounds containing carbon
carbon backbones formed by carbon atoms which bind readily with each other
four categories of carbon compounds carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleotides and nucleic acids
attach to a carbon backbone functional groups - small clusters of atoms
functional groups determine many of the properties of organic molecules
the function of each macromolecule is due to its chemical formula; the shape of the molecule
hydroxyl occurs in sugars, alcohols
methyl occurs in fats, oils, steroids, amino acids
carboxyl occurs in amino acids, sugars, proteins
amino occurs in amino acids, proteins
phosphate occurs in nucleic acids, ATP
macromolecule very large organic molecule, very high molecular weights
examples of macromolecules proteins, DNA
polymers molecules made of a repetitive series of identical or similar subunits (monomers)
starch a polymer of about 3000 glucose monomers
monomer identical or similar subunits
polymerization joining monomers to form a polymer
dehydration synthesis (condensation) the way living cells form polymers - produces water as a byproduct
hydrolysis opposite of dehydration synthesis - a water molecule ionizes into OH- and H+
dehydration synthesis reactions occur when... monomers covalently bond together to form a polymer with the removal of a water molecule. A hydroxyl group is removed from one monomer and a hydrogen from the next.
hydrolysis reactions occur when... a polymer is split (lysis) by the addition of a water molecule (hydro). This breaks a covalent bond in the polymer, H20 becomes H+ and OH-, and then joins the now-broken monomers as hydroxyl groups.
carbohydrates are... hydrophilic organic molecules
all digested carbohydrates are... converted to glucose. oxidized to make ATP.
carbohydrates have... a 2:1 ratio of hydrogen to oxygen
three important monosaccharides glucose, galactose, fructose
formula for monosaccharides C6H12O6
monosaccharides are produced by... digestion of complex carbohydrates
glucose is... blood sugar
suffix OSE some kind of sugar
disaccharide sugar molecule composed of two monosaccharides
three important disaccharides sucrose (table sugar), lactose (sugar in milk), maltose (grain products)
sucrose table sugar: glucose + fructose
lactose sugar in milk: glucose + galactose
maltose grain products: glucose + glucose
oligosaccharides short chains of three or more monosaccharides
polysaccharides long chains of monosaccharides (at least 50)
three polysaccharides of interest in humans glycogen, starch, cellulose
starch energy storage, polysaccharide in plants - only significant digestible polysaccharide in the human diet
cellulose structural molecule of plant cell walls - fiber in the diet
glycogen energy storage polysaccharide in animals
glycogen is made by... cells of liver, muscles, brain, uterus, and vagina
with regard to glycogen, the liver... produces glycogen after a meal when glucose levels are high, then breaks glycogen down in between meals to maintain blood glucose levels
muscles store glycogen... for their own energy needs
the uterus uses glycogen... to nourish the embryo
glycoprotein component of the cell surface coat and mucus, among other roles
glycolipid component of the cell surface coat
proteoglycan cell adhesion; lubrication; supportive filler of some tissues and organs
a hydrophobic organic molecule lipid
lipids are composed of... carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
lipids have a high ratio... of hydrogen to oxygen
less O(xygen) in lipids means... fewer polar covalent bonds, making most lipids insoluble in water
in lipids, being less oxidized than carbohydrates means... there are more calories per gram available
five primary types of lipids in humans fatty acids, triglycerides, phospholipids, eicosanoids, steriods
triglycerides are three fatty acids covalently bonded to three-carbon alcohol called glycerol
triglycerides, when liquid at room temperature are called oils (often polyunsaturated fats from plants)
triglycerides, when solid at room temperature are called fat (often saturated fats from animals)
primary function of triglycerides energy storage, insulation, and shock absorption (adipose tissue)
chemical constitution of saturated fats saturated - carbon atoms are saturated with hydrogen, meaning no C=C bonds
chemical constitution of unsaturated fats contains C=C bonds without hydrogen
chemical constitution of polyunsaturated fats contains many C=C bonds without hydrogen
essential fatty acids... are obtained from the diet, the body cannot synthesize them
sources of saturated (C saturated with H, no C=C bonds) triglycerides red meat, cheese, whole milk, cocoa butter, palm oil, coconut oil
at room temperature, saturated fats are usually solid
saturated fats are associated with... heart disease
unsaturated fats are sometimes considered... good fats
unsaturated fats have at least one C=C bond, and so are not saturated with Hydrogen
monounsaturated fats have... one double covalent (C=C) bond.
examples of monounsaturated fats olive oil, canola oil, peanut oil, avocado
polyunsaturated fats have... more than one double covalent (C=C) bond
sources of polyunsaturated fats fish, cottonseed, corn oil, sunflower oil, soybean oil, omega-3 and omega-6 oils. essential but must come from food or supplements.
trans fats manufactured fats that turn from liquid to solid when hydrogen is added to heated unsaturated fat
trans fats resist... enzymatic breakdown in the human body, remain in circulation longer, and deposit in the arteries
phospholipids are similar to neutral fat except that... one fatty acid is replaced by a phosphate group
phospholipids are the structural foundation of... cell membrane
phospholipids are amphiphilic, meaning fatty acid "tails" are hydrophobic, but phosphate heads are hydrophilic
eicosanoids 20 carbon compounds derived from a fatty acid called arachidonic acid
eicosanoids are involved with... hormone-like chemical signals between cells
eicosanoids include... prostaglandins, produced in all tissues
the eicosanoid prostaglandin has a role in... inflammation, blood clotting, hormone action, labor contractions, and blood vessel diameter
steroid a lipid with 17 of its carbon atoms in four rings
cholesterol the 'parent' steroid from which other steroids are synthesized
examples of steroids synthesized from cholesterol cortisol, progesterone, estrogen, testosterone, and bile acids
cholesterol is synthesized... only by animals
the organ that especially synthesizes cholesterol liver
percentage of cholesterol gotten from diet 15%
percentage of cholesterol internally synthesized 85%
a steroid required for proper nervous system function cholesterol
good and bad cholesterol refer to... droplets of lipoprotein in the blood. these are complexes of cholesterol, fat, phospholipid, and protein.
HDL high-density lipoprotein
LDL low-density lipoprotein
high-density lipoprotein (HDL) good cholesterol. lower ratio of lipid to protein. may help prevent cardiovascular disease.
low-density lipoprotein (LDL) bad cholesterol. high ratio of lipid to protein. contributes to cardiovascular disease.
bile acids steroids that aid fat digestion and nutrient absorption
cholesterol component of cell membranes; precursor of other steroids
eicosanoids chemical messengers between cells
fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K) involved in a variety of functions including blood clotting, wound healing, vision, and calcium absorption
phosophlipids major component of cell membranes; aid in fat digestion
steroid hormones chemical messengers between cells
triglycerides energy storage; thermal insulation; filling space; binding organs together; cushioning organs
amino acids all amino acids have in common an amino group (-NH2) and a carboxyl group (-COOH) attached to a central carbon
determines which amino acid variable side chains
peptide bond joins the amino group of one amino acid to the carboxyl group of the next
proteins are... essential to structure and activities of life
protein makes up about... 12-15% of the body mass of a lean adult
proteins contain these elements C(arbon), H(ydrogen), O(xygen), N(itrogen)
proteins have varying degrees of polarity based on... the amino acid composition
the number of amino acids used to make proteins 20
protein structure is based on... the amino acid sequence
the sequence of amino acids determine the shape of a protein
an example of the importance of the shape of a protein sickle cell disease
primary structure of protein organization unique sequence of amino acids
secondary structure of protein organization folding of amino acids into the polypeptide chain
tertiary structure of protein organization 3-D shape of polypeptide chain; determines protein function
quarternary structure of protein organization more than one polypeptide chain
denaturation proteins shape is sensitive to changes in temperature or acidity
protein unfolds loss of 3D shape, rarely reversible
unraveled protein is no longer functional
types of proteins enzymes, hormones, transport, contractile, protective, structural, storage, toxins, communication
role of protein type: enzymes quicken chemical reactions (ex: sucrase positions sucrose so it can be broken down into glucose and fructose)
role of protein type: hormones chemical messengers (ex: growth hormone)
role of protein type: transport move other molecules (ex: hemoglobin: transports oxygen through the blood)
role of protein type: contractile movement (ex: myosin and actin: allow muscles to contract)
role of protein type: protective healing; defense against invader (ex: fibrinogen: stops bleeding; antibodies: kill bacterial invaders)
role of protein type: structural mechanical support (ex: keratin: hair, collagen: cartilage)
role of protein type: storage stores nutrients (ex: ovalbumin: egg white, used as nutrient for embryos)
role of protein type: toxins defense, predation (ex: bacterial diphtheria toxin)
role of protein type: communication cell signaling (ex: glycoprotein: receptors on cell surface)
components of nucleotides nitrogenous base, sugar, one or more phosphate group
nitrogenous base single or double carbon-nitrogen ring
sugar (in nucleotides) monosaccharide
examples of nucleotides ATP, cGMP, cAMP
ATP adenosine triphosphate
best-known nucleotide ATP
ATP acts as... the major energy currency of the cell
ATP briefly stores... energy gained from exergonic reactions.
within seconds, ATP releases energy gained from exergonic reactions for... physiological work
ATP releases energy to perform physiological work in the form of synthesis of biomolecules
ATP releases energy to perform physiological work in the form of active transport of molecules and ions
ATP releases energy to perform physiological work in the form of nerve impulses
ATP releases energy to perform physiological work in the form of maintenance of cell volume by osmosis
ATP releases energy to perform physiological work in the form of muscle contraction
ATP releases energy to perform physiological work in the form of beating of cilia and flagella (including sperm)
ATP releases energy to perform physiological work in the form of phosphorylation to many protein to alter activity in cell signal
nucleic acids polymers formed from nucleotides (monomers) through dehydration synthesis
two kinds of nucleic acid DNA and RNA
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid - inherited genetic material
RNA ribonucleic acid - relays instructions from genes to gene product (protein)
nucleic acid are involved in the storage and flow of information from gene to gene product both DNA and RNA
monomers making up nucleic acids a phosphate, a sugar, and a base
both DNA and RNA have pentose sugar - 5 carbon sugar attaches to one of four nitrogenous bases
both DNA and RNA have phosphate groups that alternate with sugar to form the backbone
both DNA and RNA contain four nitrogenous bases
double stranded nucleic acid DNA
single stranded nucleic acid RNA
DNA consists of... two strands of nucleotides linked by hydrogen bonds
the outer rails of the double helix in DNA are composed of... sugar and phosphate components of the molecule
the rungs of the double helix of DNA consist of... bases which are hydrogen-bonded together
DNA nitrogenous bases adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C) and guanine (G)
RNA nitrogenous bases adenine (A), uracil (U), cytosine (C), and guanine (G)
the type of sugar found in DNA deoxyribose sugar
the type of sugar found in RNA ribose sugar
Created by: jcoletaylor



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