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Chapter 1:Human Body

An orientation to human body; polytech academy

Anatomy the study of the structure of body parts and their relationships to one another
Gross/macroscopic [anatomy] can see it without a microscope
Microscopic [anatomy] need a microscope to see it
cytology study of cells
microscopic study of tissues
physiology the study of the function of the body’s structural machinery
1. chemical level Atoms combine to form molecules
2. cellular level Cells are made up of molecules
3. tissue level Tissues consist of similar types of cells
4. organ level Organs are made up of different types of tissues
5. organ systems level Organ systems consist of different organs that work together closely
6. organismal level The human organism is made up of many organ systems
Integumentary system Forms the external body covering; Composed of the skin, sweat glands, oil glands, hair, and nails; Main function: protects deep tissues from injury and synthesizes Vitamin D; Location of cutaneous (pain, pressure, etc.) receptors and sweat and oil glands
skeletal system Composed of bone, cartilage, and ligaments; Main function: protects and supports body organs; Provides the framework for muscles; Site of blood cell formation; Stores minerals
muscular system Composed of muscles and tendons; Allows manipulation of the environment, locomotion, and facial expression; Main function: locomotion (allows you to move around);Maintains posture and produces heat
nervous system “control center”; Composed of the brain, spinal column, and nerves; The fast-acting control system of the body; Main function: responds to stimuli by activating muscles and glands
endocrine system Composed of glands; Main function: glands secrete hormones that regulate processes such as growth, reproduction, and nutrient use (metabolism) by body cells; Extremely important to overall function of body
cardiovascular system Composed of the heart and blood vessels; The heart pumps blood; The blood vessels transport blood throughout the body; Transports nutrients, electrolytes, oxygen, and carbon dioxide
lymphatic system Composed of red bone marrow, thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, and lymphatic vessels; Picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to blood; Disposes of debris in the lymphatic stream; Houses white blood cells involved with immunity
respiratory system Composed of the nasal cavity, pharynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs; Main function: keeps blood supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide; The gaseous exchanges occur through the walls of the air sacs of the lungs
digestive system Composed of the oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, anus, and liver; Main function: breaks down food into absorbable units that enter the blood; Eliminates indigestible foodstuffs as feces
urinary system Composed of kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra; Eliminates nitrogenous wastes (easily toxic) from the body; Regulates water, electrolyte, and pH balance of the blood
male reproductive system Composed of the prostate gland, penis, testes, scrotum, and ductus deferens; Main function: production of offspring; Testes produce sperm and male sex hormones; Ducts and glands deliver sperm to the female reproductive tract; Regulates sex hormones
female reproductive system Composed of mammary glands, ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, etc; Main function: production of offspring; Ovaries produce eggs and female sex hormones; Remaining structures serve as sites for fertilization and development of the fetus
organ system interrelationships The integumentary system protects the body from the external environment; Digestive and respiratory systems, in contact with the external environment, take in nutrients, and oxygen; Systems that work together
1a. maintaining boundaries the internal environment remains distinct from the external environment
1b. movement locomotion, propulsion (peristalsis), and contractility
1c. responsiveness ability to sense changes in the environment and respond to them
1d. digestion breakdown of ingested foodstuffs
1e. metabolism all the chemical reaction that occur in the body
1f. excretion removal of wastes from the body
1g. reproduction cellular and organismal levels
1h. growth increase in size of a body part of the organismal (cell division)
2a. nutrients needed for energy and cell building
2b. oxygen necessary for metabolic reactions (required for chemical reactions)
2c. water provides the necessary environment for chemical reactions (all reactions occur in water)
2d. normal body temperature necessary for chemical reactions to occur at life-sustaining rates (homeostasis  fever kills bacteria)
2e. atmospheric pressure required for proper breathing and gas exchange in the lungs
homeostasis The ability to maintain a relatively stable internal environment in an ever-changing outside world;The internal environment of the body is in a dynamic state of equilibrium; Chemical, thermal, and neutral factors interact to maintain homeostasis
Homeostatic Control Mechanisms The 3 interdependent components of the control mechanisms:Receptor – monitors the environments and responds to changes (stimuli);Control center–determines the set point at which the variable is maintained; Effector–provides the means to respond to stimuli
anatomical position 1. Body erect (standing) 2. Feet slightly apart 3. Palms facing forward 4. Thumbs pointing away from the body
superior toward the head a. The head is superior to the abdomen
inferior away from the head a. the navel is inferior to the chin
anterior toward the front of the body a. The breastbone is anterior to the spine
posterior toward the back of the body a. The heart is posterior to the breastbone
medial toward the midline a. The heart is medial to the arm
lateral away from the midline a. The arms are lateral to the chest
intermediate between a more medial and lateral structure a. The collarbone is intermediate between the breastbone and shoulder
proximal closer to the origin of the body part a. The elbow is proximal to the wrist
distal farther from the origin of the body part a. The knee is distal to the thigh
superficial towards the body surface a. The skin is superficial to the skeletal muscles
deep away from the body surface a. The lungs are deep to the skin
sagittal divides the body into right and left parts
midsagittal or medial sagittal plane that lies on the midline
frontal or coronal divides the body into anterior and posterior parts
transverse or horizontal divides the body into superior and inferior parts
oblique section cuts made diagonally
dorsal body cavity a. Cranial cavity b. Vertebral cavity
Ventral body cavity a. Thoracic cavity i. Separated from abdominal cavity by diaphragm b. Abdominal cavity c. Pelvic cavity
Created by: KWOLF1



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