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Neuroanatomy unit 1

Secondary vesicles formed from Prosencephalon Telencephalon, Diencephalon
SEcondary vesicles formed from Rhombencephalon Metencephalon, Myelencephalon
Craniorachischisis complete failure of the neural tube closure
Spinal bifida occulata 1+ vertebrae fail to close, but overlying skin is closed
Spinal bifida aperata protrusion of meninges and/or spinal cord
meningocele vertebrae fail to form over defect; defected portion still covered by meninges and skin
meningomyelocele herniation of spinal cord and meninges through defect in vertebrae
Arnold-Chaiari malformation cerebellum and brainstem are pushed down through foramen magnum; blocks flow of CSF
anencephaly ROSTRAL neuropore fails to close (meningocele and spinal bifida = CAUDAL), cerebral hemisphere is absent
alpha-fetoprotein a marker in amniotic fluid used to detect neural tube closure
holoprosencephaly partial or complete failure of the prosencephalon to separate into the diencephalons
fetal alcohol syndrome complete absence of the CORPUS CALLOSUM
hetertopias enlarged lateral ventricle --> seizure activity
lissencephaly cortical folding almost completely absent due to defective migration of neurons during months 3-4
anyotropic lateral sclerosis (LAS) and Polio degeneration of motor neurons
tabes dordalis late stage of syphilis, affect sensory neurons
parkinson's dopaminergic neurons are degenerated
alzheimer's cholinergic neurons in CNS are degenerated first, then other parts of brain
Myasthenia gravis loss of neurotransmitter receptors at postsynaptic membrane
PNS glia cells Schwann cells (one per segment), Satellite cells
CNS glia cells (neuroglia) oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, ependymal cells, microglial cells
oligodendrocyte forms myelin sheath in white matter of CNS; single oligo may wrap dozens of axons
astrocyte provides support to neurons
three types of astrocytes protoplasmic- part of blood-brain barrier fibrous- repair damaged tissue, may -> scar radial glia- developmental, guide axonal growth and neuronal migration
Microglia respond to CNS injury, transform to macrophages
ependymal cells form lining of ventricles
Multiple Sclerosis demyelinating disease in CNS that interfere with motor and sensory, oligodendrocytes are destroyed gradually
Guillan-Barre axonal demyelination in PNS
derivation of brain tumors glia cells
Supporting tissues in PNS epineurium- continues with dura mater perineurium endoneurium- surround each schwann cell
Created by: jesters