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Peds Final

Stack #131558

although cancer in children is rare, it is the ______leading cause of death in children 1-15 years of age. 2nd
How does cancer usually present in the child? Fever, Night sweats, and weight loss; Bone Marrow Failure: Aneamia, Thrombocytopenia, Infection. specifics related to type of cancer
How do brain tumors present in the child? Papilledema, HA, lethargy, vomitting
Neuroblastomas, Wilm's tumor, Hepatoma, Rhabdomyosarcoma, and germ cell tumor may present as : Abdominal Masses
What cancers might present as mediastinal masses, with difficulty swallowing, hoarseness, wheezing, and hypoxia? Lymphoma, neuroblastoma,
What type of lymph nodes should raise suspicion? Non-tender and rapidly enlarging nodes, supraclavicular nodes.
What is the most common cancer seen in older adolescents? Lymphoma
What has a better cure rate, Hodgkin's or non hodgkin's lymphoma? Hodgkin's (92%)
What's the difference between leukemias and lymphomas? Leukemias arise in the bone marrow; lymphomas arise from lymphoid tissue
What cancer has the classic triad of Papilledema, morning HA, and vomiting? Brain tumors
What are the two (most common?) types of brain tumors seen in children, and which one has the better prognosis? Astrocytoma and medulloblastoma. Astrocytoma has the better prognosis.
What is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy in infants? Neuroblastoma
What is the most freq extra cranial solid tumor in children? Neuroblastoma
What childhood malignancy has cerebellar encephalopathy such as ataxia, opiso-clonus, and myoclous, and often has metastases to the orbit? Neuroblastoma
What is the most common primary malignant renal tumor of childhood? Wilm's tumor
What is the WAGR syndrome? Wilm's tumor, Aniridia, GU abnormalitis, and mental retardation.
What is the presentation of wilm's tumor? Painless, abdominal mass that rarely crosses the midline, HTN secondary to renal ischemia, Abdominal pain and vomiting, hematuria.
What are the main two types of bone cancer you see in the child? Osteogenic and Ewing's sarcoma
name 3 cancers that peak between 2-5 years of age Wilms tumor, ALL, Rhabdomyosarcoma
What effect does asthma have on functional residual capacity? Increases it, making it more difficult to breathe
What is the atopic triad? Asthma, eczema, and allergic rhinitis
When are asthma symptoms most common? (time of day) AM and night
What are some triggers of asthma? Allergens, respiratory infections, exercise, GERD, Drugs (NSAIDs ACE inhibitors), pollution
What are peak expiratory flow rates? Self monitoring done by their patient in conjunction with a written action plan
A patient that has ever been to the ER for an asthma attack should never be categorized as a mild asthmatic
How are exacerbations of asthma treated? Systemic steroids (NOT shots)
What is the best steroid option for treating the child between 1 and 4 years of age? Budesimide nebulizer
What steroid DPI is indicated for children 12 and up? Mometasone (watch it; other forms approved for as young as 2 years of age)
What is an alternative to low dose corticosteroids in the mild persistent asthmatic? Monteluekast
what two anti-histamines are approved for as young as 6 months? Certirizine and fexofenadine (available in liquid form)
What are some options for treating allergic conjunctivitis? NS, Azelastine, Olopatadine, Naphazoline/phenirimine (approved for as young as 6 months)
MDI should always be given with a _____ in the pediatric population chamber
Bilious vomiting in the child suggests: partial or complete bowel obstruction (malrotation, volvulus, Hirshsprung disease, incarcerated hernia, intussesception, intestinal atresia
Non bilious vomiting in the infant suggests: GERD, cow or sow milk intolerance, pyloric stenosis
Age at presentation (for vomting) is helpful in narrowing the DDx. Newborns most likely have ______, Toddlers most likely have ______, and 3-6 weeks of age is when ______ most often presents Intestinal atresia, intussusception, Pyloric Stenosis
What is the diagnostic test of choice to assess for pyloric stenosis? Ultra Sound
What is the treatment for pyloric stenosis? Pyloromyotomy (surgery)
What is the first choice for oral rehydration therapy? Pedialyte
What is the typical length of viral gastroenteritis in children? 7-10 days.
What tests would you order for stool studies in the child with diarrhea? O&P, culture, C.Diff
How is mild, moderate and severe dehydration treated? ORT for mild and moderate, Severe is treated with a rapid infusion of isotonic saline.
What are the three main causes of constipation? Not enough water, fiber, or excercise
How is constipation defined? Decrease in a person's normal freq of defecation accompanied by a difficult or incomplete passage of dry, hard stool.
What are some functional causes of diarrhea? Traumatic events associated such as painful passage or physical or sexual abuse, difficult psychosocial changes such as difficulty with potty training or divorce.
What is encopresis? Leaking of liquid stool around a hardened mass of stool.
Most causes of constipation are functional ____% are organic and include: 5, Hirshprung disease, abnormalities of the anus or colon, Medications, NTD, botulism, hypothyroidsim, Celiac disease, DM.
What is the most common cause of parasitic diarrhea in the United States? Giardia
What would be a good laxative for a child? Osmotic agents such as Polyethylene Glycol (miralax), Lactulose.
What is Enuresis? Involuntary discharge of urine after the age at which bladder control should have been established
What is Amblyopia? Unilateral or bilateral reduction in central visual acuity due to the sensory depreivation of a well formed retinal image that occures witho or without a visiable organix lesion commuensureate wit the degree of visual loss.
Amblyopia can only occur during the critical period of visual development in the first decade of life.
What are the three types of Amblyopia? Strabismic, Refractive, Deprivation.
What is strabismus? Misalignment of the visual axes of the two eyes.
Strabismus might be a marker for what other diseases? Retinoblastoma, hydrocephalus, space occupying lesion
Created by: maassma