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ch.19 vocab cancer

ch. 19 cancer medicine vocabulary

adjuvant therapy assisting primary treatment
alkylating agents synthetic chemicals containing alkyl groups that interfere with DNA synthesis
anaplasia loss of differentiation of cells
antibiotics chemical substances produced by bacteria, that inhibit the growth of cells
antimetabolites chemicals that prevent cell division by inhibiting the formation of substances necessary to make DNA
apoptosis programmed cell death
benign tumor noncancerous
biological response modifiers substance produced by normal cells that either directly block tumor growth or stimulate the immune system
biological therapy use of the body's own defense mechanisms to fight tumor cells
carcinogens agents that cause cancer
carcinoma cancerous tumor made up of cells of epithelial origin
cellular oncogenes pieces of DNA that when broken or dislocated, can cause a normal cell to become malignant
chemotherapy treatment with drugs
combination chemotherapy use of several chemotherapeutic agents together for the treatment of tumors
dedifferentiation loss of differentiation of cells
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNS) genetic material within the nucleus of a cell
differentiating agents drugs that promote tumor cells to differentiate, stop growing and die
differentiation specialization of cells
electron beams low-energy beams of radiation for treatment of skin or surface tumors
encapsulated surrounded by a capsule
external beam radiation radiation applied to a tumor from a distant source
fractionation giving radiation in small, repeated doses
genetic screening family members are tested to determine whether they have inherited a cancer-causing gene
grading of tumors evaluating the degree of maturity of tumor cells
gray (Gy) unit of radiation equal to 100 rad (absrobed dose of radiation)
gross description of tumors visual appearance of tumors
infiltrative extending beyond normal tissue boundaries
invasive having the ability to enter and destroy surrounding tissue
linear accelerator device that produces high-energy x-ray beams for treatment of deep-seated tumors
malignant tumor tending to become worse and result in deatg
mesenchymal embryonic connective tissue
metastasis spread of malignant tumor to a secondary site
microscopic description (of tumors) the appearance of tumors when viewed under a microscope
mitosis replication of cells
mixed-tissue tumors tumors composed of different types of tisse
modality method of treatment
molecularly targeted drugs anticancer drugs designed to block the function of growth factors, their receptors, and signaling pathways in tumor cells
morbidity the condition of being diseased
mucinous containingg mucus
mutation change in the genetic material (DNA) of a cell
neoplasm new growth
nucleotide unit of DNA (gene) composed of a sugar, phosphate and base
oncogene a region of DNA (genetic material) found in tumor cells (cellular oncogene) or in viruses that cause cancer (viral oncogene)
palliative relieving, but curing symptoms
pedunculated possessing a stem or stalk (peduncle)
pharmacokinetics study of the distribution in an removal of drugs from the body over a period of time
protocol an explicit, detailed plan for treatment
rad unit of absorbed radiation dose
radiation energy carried by a stream of particles
radiocurable tumor cells that are eradicated by radiation therapy
radioresistant tumor cells that require large doses of radiation to be destroyed
radiosensitive tumor a tumor in which radiation can cause the death of cells
radiosensitizers drugs that increase the sensitivity of tumors to x-rays
radiotherapy treatment using radiation
relapse return of symptoms of disease
remission absence of symptoms of disease
ribonucleic acid (RNA) cellular substance (located within an outside the nucleus) that, along with DNA, plays an important role in the synthesis of proteins in a cell
sarcoma cancerous tumor derived from connective tissue
serous pertaining to a thin, watery fluid
sessile having no stem
solid tumor tumor composed of a mass of cells
staging of tumors system of evaluating the extent of spread of tumors
steroids complex, naturally occurring chemicals, such as hormones, that are used as chemotherapeutic agents
surgical procedures to treat cancer methods of removing cancerous tissue
ultraviolet radiation rays given off by the sun
viral oncogenes pieces of DNA from viruses that infect a normal cell and cause it to become malignant
virus an infectious agent that reproduces by entering a host cell and using the host's genetic material to make copies of itself
Created by: funnykitty24