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SLPA 3704 Chapter 1

Anatomy and physiology

TermDefinition
Anatomy is the study of the structure of an organism and the relationships among parts of the body along with the structure of individual organs.
What does anatomy mean in Greek ? "to cut up" or "cut open"
Gross Anatomy ( microscopic) the study of the body and its parts visible without the aid of microscope
surface anatomy study of the body and its surface in relation to the underlying structures.
developmental anatomy study of anatomy with reference to growth and development from conception to adulthood.
Physiology It is the study of the function of the body’s structures (characteristics and mechanisms that make it a living being).
Anatomical position body is erect, feet together, palms face forward and the thumbs point away from the body .
Superior the part is above another or closer to head (cranial/cephalic, rostal ).
Inferior: the part is below another or towards the feet (caudal)
Anterior/ventral the part is towards the front/away from the back
posterior/ dorsal towards the back
list the nine body cavities cranial cavity Dorsal cavity, spinal cavity, pelvic cavity, Thoracic cavity Ventral cavity, abdominal cavity, abdominopelvic
Anatomical position: medial relates to the imaginary midline dividing the body into equal right and left halves
Anatomical position: lateral Means towards the side away from the imaginary midline
Anatomical position: Ipsilateral parts on the same side of the body
Anatomical position: contralateral refers to the opposite side
Anatomical position: Unilateral refers to one side of the body (uni meaning one)
Anatomical position: bilateral refers to both sides of the body
Anatomical position: proximal describes a part that is closer to the trunk of the body or closer to another specified point of reference than another part. EX) the shoulder is proximal to the elbow
Anatomical position: distal means that a part of the body is further from the trunk or further from another specified point of reference than another part. EX) the feet are distal to the hip
Anatomical position: superficial located near the surface
Anatomical position: deep is used to describe parts that are located more internal than others
Anatomical position: peripheral toward the outside of the body
Anatomical position: central toward the center of the body
Anatomical position: prone laying face down ( accident prone.. fall face down)
Anatomical position: supine laying face up
Plane is a surface in which if any two points are connected by a straight line , the two points will be wholly in the same space/surface/plane
How many different planes are there ? four: sagittal , frontal, coronal, transverse
frontal plane separates into front and back sections
midsagittal plane separates into equal left and right halves
Transverse plane separates into upper and lower parts ( horizontal)
chemical compounds/organelles structures that are included within the cell
Cell the smallest structural and functional unit of the human body measured in microns, 100 trillion in the body, shaped differently according to function
Tissues any tissue is formed by a group of cells and the materials surrounding them (matrix, inter-cellular spaces) that work together to form a particular function . muscle, skin or nervous
organs is composed of two or more tissues that work together to provide specific functions and they usually have specific functions and specific shapes EX) heart, lung, brain
There are how many main types of tissues ? five: Epithelial tissue Connective tissue Muscular tissue Nervous tissue Vascular tissue
Epithelial Cells cover the external surface of the body (form the epidermal layer of the skin) form the internal membranes that line the internal viscera. Line the tubes of the digestive tracts, the genitourinary tract, respiratory tract. Single layer or many layers
Endothelial tissue a specific type of epithelial tissue that lines the blood vasculature and lympatics forms single layer of flat cells that is fenstrated
Mensothelial tissue form the serous membranes that line the internal body cavities EX) pleural cavities, peritoneal cavity, pericardial cavity
connective tissue (CT) is formed of cellular component and acellular component which is called intercellular or matrix . CT is divided according to the component of its matrix
special types of CT Cartilage: elastic (epiglottis, ear canal, ET) hyaline (articular surface of bone and lower respiratory T., fibrous (intervertebral discs) Blood: hematopoietic tissue
Loose CT binds parts together, e.g. areolar tissue which forms the bed of different structures such as skin, adipose tissue is areolar tissue rich in fat cells, mainly form the subcutaneous fascia
Dense CT contain either collagenous fibers, elastic fibers, reticular fibers They form tendons, ligaments, aponeuroses and fasciae
Bone (osseous) tissue structurally bone can be spongy "cancellous" or compact "dense" According to the shape there are: long bones (humor, femur), short bones (foot, hands), flat bones (skull, scapula), irregular(hip bones and vertebrae).
How is the skeletal system divided ? axial (vertebral column and connected bones) and appendicular (upper limb, lower limb)
what are the different types of muscle tissue? Straited/skeletal smooth cardiac
straited/skeletal muscle voluntary, supplied by spinal/somatic nerves
smooth muscles (non-striated involuntary, visceral): supplied by autonomic nervous system (ANS). Ex: GI muscles
cardiac muscle in the heart (involuntary, striated with branched fibers, intrinsic excitability, supplied by autonomic ANS )
nerve tissue mainly made up by the nerve cells(neurons) and supporting cells(neuroglia) neurons convert stimili to electrical impulses to and from the brain
name the organ systems of the body (10) Integumentary system (skin and its appendages). Muscular system Skeletal system Cardiovascular system Respiratory system Digestive system Nervous system Reproductive system Urinary system Endocrine system
Skeletal system Protects and supports body organs Provides a framework for muscles Blood cells formed within bones Stores minerals
Created by: rayrayj