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anatomy study of the form and structure of the body (relationships among parts of the body as well as the structure of the individual organs)
physiology examines how the body functions (how organ and body systems function under normal circumstances and abnormal circumstances)
microscopic anatamoy examines structures that cannot be seen with the unaided eye (use microscope)
cytology study of body cells and their internal structure
histology study of tissues
gross anatomy (macroscopic anatomy) investigates structures viable to the unaided eye (specimens dissected for examination)
systemic anatomy studies the anatomy of each functional body system
regional anatomy examines all of the structures in a particular region of the body
cardiovascular physiology the functioning of the heart, blood vessels, and blood
neurophysiology the functioning of nerves and nervous system organs
respiratory physiology the functioning of respiratory organs
reproductive physiology the functioning of reproductive hormones and the reproductive cycle
pathophysiology the relationship between the function of an organ system and disease or injury in the system
body's level of organization (simplest to most complex) chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, organ system, organismal
chemical level involves atoms and molecules
atoms smallest units of matter
molecules one or more combined atoms (sugar, vitamins)
macromolecules more complex molecules (proteins and deoxyribonucleic acid [DNA])
organelles microscopic subunits in cells composed of macromolecules
cellular level consists of cells formed from atoms and molecules from the chemical level
cells smallest living structures, basic units of structure and function in organisms, vary widely in structure, reflecting specialization needed
tissue level consists of tissues
tissues groups of similar cells performing common functions
four types of tissues epithelial tissue, connective tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue
epithelial tissue covers exposed surfaces and lines body cavities
connective tissue protects, supports, and binds structures and organs
muscle tissue produces movement
nervous tissue conducts nerve impulses
organ level consists of organs
organs two or more tissue types performing specific functions (i.e. the small intestine composed of all four tissue types, working to process and absorb digested nutrients)
organ system level contain related organs that work together to achieve a common function (i.e. organs of the digestive system working together to digest food, absorb nutrients, and expel waste products)
organismal level highest level of structural organization with all body functions working independently in a living being
all organisms must exchange ____, _____, and ___ to carry on metabolism nutrients, wastes, and gases
multicellular organisms require _____ _____ to perform multiple activities organ systems
11 organ systems integumentary system, skeletal system, muscular system, nervous system, endocrine system, cardiovascular system, lymphatic system, respiratory system, urinary system, digestive system, male and female reproductive system
integumentary system forms external body covering, protects deeper tissues from injury, synthesizes vitamin D, and site of cutaneous receptors (pain, pressure, sweat and oil glands)
skeletal system protects and supports body organs, provides a framework for muscles, forms blood cells within bones, stores minerals
muscular system locomotion, maintain posture, and produces heat
nervous system fast-acting control system and responds to internal and external changes
endocrine system glands secrete hormones that regulate growth, reproduction and nutrient use
cardiovascular system blood vessels transport blood (carries oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients and wastes) and the heart pumps blood through blood vessels
lymphatic system/ immunity picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels, disposes of debris in the lymphatic system, houses white blood cells (lymphocytes), and mounts attack against foreign substances in the body
respiratory system keeps blood supplied with oxygen, removes carbon dioxide, and gas exchange occurs though walls of air sacs in the lungs
digestive system breaks down food into absorbable units and indigestible foodstuffs eliminated as feces
urinary system eliminates nitrogenous wastes and regulates water, electrolyte, and acid-base balance
male and female reproductive system overall function is to produce offspring (testes produce sperm and male sex hormones, ovaries produce eggs and female sex hormones, and mammary glands produce milk)
anatomic position upright stance, feet parallel and flat on the floor, upper limbs at the sides of the body, palms face anteriorly (toward the front), head is level, eyes look forward
section slice or cut to expose internal anatomy
plane imaginary flat surface passing through the body
three major planes coronal (frontal), transverse, midsagittal (sagittal)
coronal plane vertical plane dividing the body into anterior (front) and posterior (back)
transverse plane horizontal plane dividing the body into superior (top) and inferior (bottom)
midsagittal (sagittal) plane vertical plane dividing the body into equal left and right halves
dorsal toward the back
ventral toward the belly
proximal nearer to the trunk
distal farther from the trunk
medial toward the inside of the body
lateral toward the outside of the body
superior above
inferior below
deep on the inside
superficial on the outside
two main regions of the body axial region and appendicular region
axial region includes the head, neck, and trunk and forms the main vertical axis of the body
appendicular region composed of the upper and lower limbs
body cavities are grouped into a _____ and ____ posterior aspect and ventral cavity
posterior aspect contains cavities completely encased in bone, physically and developmentally distinct from the ventral cavity, and subdivided into the cranial cavity and the vertebral cavity
cranial cavity (endocranium) formed by bones of the cranium (houses the brain)
vertebral canal formed by the bones of the vertebral column (houses the spinal cord)
ventral cavity larger, anteriorly placed, does not completely encase organs in bone, partitioned into superior thoractic cavity and an inferior abdominopelvic cavity, and lined with serous membranes, continuous layer of cells
serous membranes composed of two layers parietal layer and visceral layer
parietal layer lines the internal surface of the body wall
visceral layer covers the external surface of organs (the viscera within the cavity)
Where is the serous cavity between the parietal layer and the visceral layer
serous fluid secreted by the membranes, serves as a lubricant, and reduces friction caused by movement of organs against the body wall
mediastinum median space in the thoracic cavity that contains the heart, thymus, esophagus, trachea, and major blood vessels that connect to the heart
serous pericardium two-layered serous membrane
parietal pericardium outer layer which forms the sac around the heart
visceral pericardium inner layer which forms the heart's external surface
pericardial cavity potential space between parietal and visceral layers containing serous fluid
pleura two-layered serous membrane associated with the lungs
parietal pleura outer layer which lines the internal surface of the thoracic wall
visceral pleura inner layer which covers the external surface of the lungs
pleural cavity potential space between parietal and visceral layers containing serous fluid
abdominopelvic cavity can be divided in two... horizontal plane at the level of the superior aspect of the hip bones
abdominal cavity area superior to the plane and contains most of the digestive system organs, kidneys, and most of the ureters
pelvic cavity area inferior and between the hip bones that contains distal large intestine, remainder of ureters and urinary bladder, and internal reproductive organs
homeostasis the body's ability to maintain a relatively stable internal environment in response to changing conditions
body maintains homeostasis with... homeostatic control systems
three components associated with each system to maintain homeostasis receptor, control center, and effector
receptor the structure that detects changes in a variable, the stimulus (i.e. a change in temperature) and consists of sensory nerves
control center the structure (portion of the nervous system or an endocrine organ) that interprets input from the receptor and initiates changes through the effector
effector the structure that brings about changes to alter the stimulus and most body structures (i.e. muscles and glands)
feedback loop stimulus... detection of stimulus by a receptor... information relayed to the control center... integration of the input by control center and initiation of change through effectors... return of homeostasis by the actions of effectors
negative feedback a type of homeostatic control system that maintains the variable within a normal range (results in action opposite the stimulus), controls most body processes, and variable is maintained within a normal level or set point
positive feedback another type of homeostatic control that moves the stimulus in the same direction and continues until a climatic event occurs
Created by: Nicolekr



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