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Shoulder Muscles

Anatomy, Support & Movement

QuestionAnswer
Which muscle serves to retract and help stabilise the shoulder? A. deltoid B. latissimus dorsi C. trapezius D. pectoralis major E. All options are correct C. trapezius
Which of the following movements is performed by the pectoralis major? A. Elevation B. Arm flexion C. Arm abduction D. Lateral rotation E. Arm extension B. Arm flexion
Which of the following muscles are part of the rotator cuff and thus responsible for shoulder rotation? A. teres minor B. supraspinatus C. infraspinatus D. subscapularis E. All options are correct E. All options are correct
Which of the following muscles is responsible for elevation of scapula? A. teres minor B. pectoralis minor C. levator scapulae D. rhomboids E. teres major C. levator scapulae
What type of movement is generated by a muscle originating on scapula and inserting on dorsal aspect of the humerus? A. Retraction of shoulder B. Lateral rotation of arm C. Medial rotation of arm D. Protraction of shoulder E. Elevation of shoulder B. Lateral rotation of arm
What are the main functions of the shoulder muscles? - Stabilises the pectoral girdle - Moves the arms
Name the origin and insertion of the trapezius muscle. Origin: - Medial 1/3 of superior nuchal line - External occipital protuberance - Nuchal ligament - Spinous processes of C7-T12 Insertion: - Lateral 1/3 clavicle - Acromion - Spine of scapula
What movements are generated when the trapezius muscle contracts? - Elevation and retraction of the shoulders - Extension of the neck
What are the main functions and actions of the levator scapulae? - Elevates the scapula - Stabilises the scapula
Name the origin and insertion of the levator scapulae. Origin: - Posterior tubercles of transverse processes C1-C4 Insertion: - Medial border of scapula from superior angle to root of spine
What are the main functions and actions of the rhomboids? - Retract the scapula - Rotate the scapula - Retract/adduct shoulders - Stabilises the shoulders
Name the origin and insertion of the rhomboid minor. Origin: - Ligamentum nuchae - Spinous processes of C7-T1 Insertion: - Medial border of scapula at root of spine
Name the origin and insertion of the rhomboid major. Origin: - Spinous processes of T2-T5 Insertion: - Medial border of scapula between root of spine and inferior angle
What are the main functions and actions of the pectoralis minor? - Depresses and protracts (i.e. abducts) the shoulders - Stabilises scapula by drawing it inferiorly and anteriorly
Name the origin and insertion of the pectoralis minor. Origin: - Ribs 3-5 near costal margin Insertion: - Corocoid process of scapula
What are the main functions and actions of the serratus anterior? - Protracts scapula - Rotates scapula - Stabilises the shoulder
Name the origin and insertion of the serratus anterior. Origin: - External lateral parts of upper 8 ribs Insertion: - Anterior medial border of scapula
What are the major shoulder stabiliser muscles? - trapezius - levator scapulae - rhomboids (rhomboid major and rhomboid minor) - pectoralis minor - serratus anterior
Which muscle is the major arm abductor? deltoid
What are the main actions of the deltoid? (be specific to the fibres) Anterior fibres: - Flexes arm at gleno-humeral joint - Medially rotates arm at gleno-humeral joint Middle fibres: - Abducts arm at gleno-humeral joint (after initial 30deg of abduction) Posterior fibres: - Extends arm - Laterally rotates arm
Name the origin and insertion of the deltoid. Origin: - Lateral 1/3 of clavicle - Acromion - Spine of scapula Insertion: - Deltoid tuberosity of humerus
What are the main functions and actions of the supraspinatus? - Initiates abduction of arm at gleno-humeral joint (initial 30deg of abduction) - Holds head of humerus in glenoid cavity
Name the origin and insertion of the supraspinatus. Origin: - Supraspinous fossa of scapula Insertion: - Superior facet of greater tuberosity on humerus
What are the main functions and actions of the pectoralis major? - Adducts humerus at gleno-humeral joint - Medially rotates humerus at gleno-humeral joint - Assists in flexion of the arm (e.g. push-up
Name the origin and insertion of the pectoralis major. Origin: - Clavicular head * anterior surface of medial 1/2 clavicle - Sternocostal head * anterior surface of sternum * superior 6 costal cartilages * aponeurosis of external oblique Insertion: - Lateral lip of intertubercular groove
What are the main actions of the coracobrachialis? - Flexion of the arm at the gleno-humeral joint - Adduction of the arm at the gleno-humeral joint
Name the origin and insertion of the coracobrachialis Origin: - Coracoid process of scapula Insertion: - Middle 1/3 of medial surface of humerus opposite to insertion of deltoid tuberosity
What are the main actions of the latissimus dorsi? - Extends humerus at gleno-humeral joint - Adducts humerus at gleno-humeral joint - Medially rotates humerus at gleno-humeral joint
Name the origin and insertion of the latissimus dorsi. Origin: - Spinous processes of inferior 6 thoracic vertebrae - Thoracolumbar fascia - Lower 3-4 ribs - Iliac crest Insertion: - Floor of intertubercular groove
What are the main functions and actions of the subscapularis? - Adduction of the arm at the gleno-humeral joint - Medial rotation of the arm at the gleno-humeral joint - Holds head of humerus in glenoid cavity
Name the origin and insertion of the subscapularis. Origin: - Subscapular fossa Insertion: - Lesser tubercle of humerus
What are the main actions of the teres major? - Adducts arm at gleno-humeral joint - Medially rotates arm at gleno-humeral joint
Name the origin and insertion of the teres major. Origin: - Posterior surface of inferior angle of scapula Insertion - Medial lip of intertubercular groove of humerus
What are the main functions and actions of the infraspinatus? - Laterally rotates arm at gleno-humeral joint - Holds head of humerus in glenoid cavity
Name the origin and insertion of the infraspinatus. Origin: - Infraspinous fossa Insertion: - Middle facet of greater tuberosity
What are the main functions and actions of the teres minor? - Laterally rotates arm at gleno-humeral joint - Holds head of humerus in glenoid cavity
Name the origin and insertion of the teres minor. Origin: - Superior lateral border of scapula Insertion: - Inferior facet of greater tuberosity of humerus
What are the rotator cuff muscles? - supraspinatus - infraspinatus - subscapularis - teres minor
What are the rotator cuff muscles responsible for? Rotation of the shoulder
What muscles are responsible for movement of the arm? - deltoid - supraspinatus - pectoralis major - coracobrachialis - latissimus dorsi - subscapularis - teres major - infraspinatus - teres minor
What are the muscles responsible for abduction of the arm? - deltoid - infraspinatus
What are the muscles responsible for adduction of the arm? - pectoralis major - latissimus dorsi - coracobrachialis
What muscles generate arm flexion? - pectoralis major - coracobrachialis
What muscle generates arm extension? - latissimus dorsi
Which rotator cuff muscles cause abduction and medial rotation of the arm at the gleno-humeral joint? - subscapularis - supraspinatus
Which rotator cuff muscles cause lateral rotation of the arm at the gleno-humeral joint? - infraspinatus - teres minor
What nerve supplies the trapezius? spinal accessory nerve
What nerve supplies the latissimus dorsi? thoracodorsal nerve
What nerve supplies the rhomboid minor? dorsal scapular nerve
What nerve supplies the rhomboid major? dorsal scapular nerve
What nerve supplies the levator scapulae? - dorsal scapular nerve - cervical nerves
What nerve supplies the pectoralis major? - lateral pectoral nerve - medial pectoral nerve
What nerve supplies the pectoralis minor? - lateral pectoral nerve - medial pectoral nerve
What nerve supplies the serratus anterior? long thoracic nerve
What nerve supplies the deltoid? axillary nerve
What nerve supplies the teres major? lower subscapular nerve
What nerve supplies the subscapularis? - upper subscapular nerve - lower subscapular nerve
What nerve supplies the suprapinatus? suprascapular nerve
What nerve supplies the infraspinatus? suprascapular nerve
What nerve supplies the teres minor? axillary nerve
What nerve supplies the coracobrachialis? musculocutaneous nerve
Created by: neisym