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Late MIddle Ages

When did the Black Death occur? What percentage of europes population died? 1348-1350. 40%
In the 14th century what fraction of population worked the land? 9/10
What happened as agriculture increased? more food --> overpopulation --> famine
where did the virus come from? rats on ships brought it from asia to europe
Who was Giovanni Boccaccio? author who wrote "decameron" about the black death
What were flagellants? people who beat themselves for penance during black death
What group did some people blame for the black death Jews
What were 3 economic/social consequences of the plague? Farms declined bc smaller population, skilled artisans/ cities rose, lords lost power
what did the statute of laborers do? what did it cause? limited wages to pre-plague levels --> english peasants revolt
What did the taille do? taxed french peasants --> Jacquiere uprising
Who gained political power from the plague? Trade guilds
How did the plague effect the power balance in europe? bad for church + nobles --> kings benefit and centralize
how did the gov start changing in late middle ages? it started becoming more centralized
When was the hundred years war? 1337-1453
What were the main causes of the war? English King edward claim to french throne, english control of french territories like flanders, history of animosity
what were the advantages that the french had? 3 xs the population of england, wealthier, fought on own land
What were the advantages that the english had? stable centralized gov, better military strategy
What was the Estates General? french council of nobles/clergy/townspeople that increased taxes so king could raise war money
What happened in the war during the reign of king edward? what did it lead to in france? english won many victories like port of calais and captures french king John the Good --> estates general gets power in france
What was the Jacquiere? french peasant revolt from being taxed for war
What was the Peace of bretigny calais? treaty that secured english control of french territories (big win for english)
what happened after king edward died? what did it lead to? peasant revolts --> allowed france to push english back
what did king henry V do in france? took normandy and agincourt
What did the treaty of troyes do? gave english king henry V the claim to french throne
Who was Joan of arc and what did she provide for the french? french peasant who took Orleans back from english, gave french sense of national identity
what allowed the french to finally drive the english back? french alliance with burgundy
What were the social/political effects of the war? peasantry suffered from taxes , gave france national identity, burgundy became a political power,
What was the 13th century papacy like? very centralized, politically strong, spiritually weak
What was the papal plenitude of power? doctrine by pope innocent that made the papacy a great secular power
Who did the 13 century papacy receive criticism from? why? the clergy and heretics for being materialistic
What started happening to the papacy? internal disunity and attacks from politicians
Why did Boniface and Philip the fair quarrel? boniface said he had no right to do clerical taxation, so edward responded by cutting off papacy's money supply
why was boniface so powerless in the matter? no money supply, in a fight with rival italian family, king arrested his bishop
What was the Unam sanctam? did it work? boniface last effort that declared temporal authority subject to church, no
WHy did Pope clement V move the papacy to avignon? to escape more conflict with the king
How did the avignon papacy raise money? what did this do for its reputation sold pardons for sins; materialistic
what did marsilius of padua write? the defender of peace, in which he said church should have no secular power
who was john XXII? most powerful avignon pope
how did the papacy face national opposition in the late 14th century? gov its restricted payments, power to make appointments, took away annates
What did John Wycliffe teach? who followed him? that church shouldnt have secular power; lollard heretics
What did John Huss teach? who followed him? vernacular translations of bible; hussites
What was the great schism time period when there was more than one pope and different countries took sides
Why did the great schism happen? Roman cardinals/Pope urban 6 wanted papacy to be in rome, french cardinals/pope clement 7 wanted it to be in avignon
how did the great schism end> conciliarism
What was conciliar theory? idea that church councils have authority over papacy
What did the council of pisa do selected a new pope and tried to depose the old ones but they didn't step down
What did the council of constance do? asserted conciliar power, deposed all 3 existing popes and chose a new 1
What did the council of basel do? what did this end? peacefully negotiated with bohemian hussites, ended hussite wars
How did conciliarism die? the pope reunited with the eastern church and declared church councils null
What was the main consequence of the conciliar movement? what happened because of it more secular control over church (kings started regulating religious life)
What religion did medieval russia choose to adopt? why? greek orthodoxy. to strengthen ties with byzantine empire
what happened in medieval russia after the prince died? rivaling byzantine princes all fought for control of it, creating a divided country
What did the Mongol empire do in Russia? what did political effect did it have on russia? conquered and made the cities pay. Deepened separation between russia and the west
How did the mongol rule end in russia? moscow princes slowly took control of territory and then defeated tatar (mongol) forces
Created by: mhaq.16