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14295B Chapter 6

Chapter 6 Hospital Corpsman

the study of body structures and the relation of one part to another Anatomy
the study of how the body works and how the various parts function individually and in relation to each other Physiology
What position is assumed when the body stands erect with the arms hanging at the sides and the palms of the hands turned forward? anatomical position
Toward the front, or along the belly side of the body Anterior or Ventral
Toward the back, or along the vertebral side of the body Posterior or Dorsal
Near or toward the mid-sagittal plane of the body Medial
Away from the mid-sagittal plane of the body Lateral
Nearest to the point of origin or towards the trunk Proximal
Away from the point of origin or away from the trunk Distal
Toward the lower end of the body Caudal
Toward the bottom of the body or below Inferior
What is the process of absorption, storage, and use of these foods for body growth, maintenance, and repair? Metabolism
What is the body's self-regulated control of its internal environment? Homeostasis
What is the smallest and most numerous structural unit that possess and exhibits the basic characteristics of living matter? Cell
a group of many similar cells that all develop together from the same part of an embryo and all perform a certain function? Tissue
a structure made up of several different kinds of tissues arranged so that, together, they can perform a special function. organ
Each cell is surrounded by a membrane called? plasma membrane
a small, dense, usually spherical body that controls the chemical reactions occurring in the cell? nucleus
a gelatinous substance surrounding the nucleus and is contained by the plasma membrane? cytoplasm
The lining tissue of the body is called? epithelium
Adipose tissue is what? fatty tissue
What are the three types of muscle tissue? skeletal, smooth and cardiac
The basic cell of the nerve tissue is the? neuron
What are the two layers of the skin? epidermis and dermis
What is considered the true skin? The dermis
The appendages of the skin are? nails, hairs, sebaceous glands, sweat glands, and ceruminous glands.
What small muscle attached to the side of the follicle is responsible for gooseflesh or "goosebumps"? The arrector
The skeleton, the bony framework of the body, is composed of how many bones? 206
the study of the structure of bone? Osteology
Bone is made up of inorganic mineral salts (calcium and phosphorus being the most prevalent) and an organic substance called? ossein
The thin outer membrane surrounding the bone is called the? periosteum
Bone consists of a hard outer shell, called? compact bone
Bone consists of an inner spongy, porous portion, called? cancellous tissue
In the center of the bone is the? medullary canal
What is contained in the medullary canal? Marrow
What is the pain center of the bone? periosteum
the elongated, cylindrical portion (or "shaft) of the bone? diaphysis
What is the area at the ends of the bone? epiphysis
Femur and humerus are what classification of bone? Long bones
wrist and ankle bones are what classification of bones? short bones
skull, sternum, and scapula are what classification of bone? flat bones
Vertebrae, mandible and pelvic bones are what classification of bone? irregular bones
What forms the axial skeleton? the skull, vertebral column and thorax
How many bones does the skull consist of? 28 bones
When do the frontal bones usually fuse together? At age 5 or 6
How many bones in the cranium? 8 bones
How many bones in the face? 14 bones
What bone is connected to the ethmoid bone, and together they form the nasal septum? Vomer
What are the three small bones of the middle ear called? malleus (hammer), incus (anvil), and stapes (stirrup)
What is the function of the bones of the middle ear? transmit and amplify vibrations to the ear drum and inner ear
The vertebral column consists of how many moveable true vertebrae? 24
What is the first of the cervical vertebrae called? atlas
What is the second cervical vertebrae that is highly specialized? axis
Which cervical vertebrae has a prominent projection that can easily be palpated? the seventh
How many thoracic vertebrae? 12
How many lumbar vertebrae? 5
What is a cone shaped boney cage about as wide and it is deep? thorax
What are the first 7 pairs of ribs called? true ribs
What are the last remaining five ribs called? False ribs
The last two pair of ribs are called what? Floating ribs
the longest bone of the upper extremity? Humerus
What does the appendicular skeleton consist of? the upper and lower extremities
what are bones that develop within a tendon known as? sesamoid bones
What is the term for immovable joints? synarthoses
What is the term for slightly moveable joints? amphiarthroses
What is the term for freely moveable joints? diarthroses
What are the classifications of freely moveable joints? ball-in-socket, condyloid, gliding, hinge, pivot, and saddle joints
what reach across joints from one bone to another? ligaments
what is it called when ligaments are torn? sprain
Bending the arm or leg. Flexion
Straightening or unbending, as in straightening the forearm, leg, or fingers. Extension
The movement of the hips and shoulders. Circumduction
Bringing an extremity toward the body. Adduction
Moving an extremity away from the body. Abduction
What are the three functions of muscle? providing movement, maintaining body posture, and providing heat.
A contracting muscle is referred to as what? A prime mover.
Ability of a muscle to become shorter or thicker. Contractibility
What is it the term for when a muscle is stimulated? excitability or irritability
Muscles ability to stretch when force is applied. extensibility
Muscle contraction that occurs when the muscle is stimulated. Isotonic
Muscle contraction that occurs when the muscle is stimulated and shortens. Isometric
What is a continual state of partial contraction that gives muscle firmness? Tonicity
Muscle regaining its original form when force is removed. Elasticity
What happens when a muscle dies? It becomes solid and rigid and no longer reacts.
Rigor mortis occurs how long after death? 10 minutes to several hours
The process of chewing food in preparation for swallowing and digestion. Mastication
What is the four types of taste sensation? sweet, sour, bitter and salty
Swallowing of food. Deglutination
Fan-shape muscle located on the side of the skull. temporalis
What muscle is located on both sides of the neck? Sternocleidomastoid
What is the site of choice for IM injections? gluteus maximus
What is the longest muscle in the body? Sartorius
what is the primary muscle of respiration? Diaphragm
What is the total blood volume of the average adult? 5 to 6 liters
Plasma constitutes what percent of whole blood? 55 percent
What percent of whole blood is the blood cells suspended in the plasma? 45 percent
When blood components separate and the WBC's and platelets form a thin layer called what? The buffy coat
What are erythrocytes? red blood cells
What is the key of the red blood cell ability to carry oxygen and carbon dioxide? hemoglobin
Red blood cells only live how long? 100 to 200 days
What are white blood cells? leukocytes
What is a normal WBC? 6,000 to 8,000 per cubic millimeter
What may the number of white cells be during infection? 15,000 to 20,000
What disease is inherited and characterized by delayed clotting of the blood and consequent difficulty in controlling hemorrhage? Hemophilia
What is the movement called when leukocytes squeeze between the cells that form blood cell walls? diapedesis
What is the process of engulfing disease-bearing bacteria and foreign matter called? Phagocytosis
What is the membranous sac that encloses the heart? The pericardium
What part of the heart receives blood from the veins? the atrium
what part of the heart receives blood form the atrium and pumps it out to the arteries? ventricle
Contraction of the heart is called? systole
Relaxation of the heart is called? diastole
What is commonly called the pacemaker of the heart? The sinoatrial (SA) node
what blood vessels are the distributors? arteries
what blood vessels are the exchangers? capillaries
What blood vessels are the collectors? veins
The difference between systolic and diastolic pressure is know as? pulse pressure
What is the largest artery in the body? the aorta
What system contains the only veins in the body that carry freshly oxygenated blood? pulmonary system
What vein is most commonly used for venipuncture? median cubital
What are contained in lymph nodes and engulf and destroy foreign substances, damaged cells, and cellular debris? macrophages
What part of the brain is concerned chiefly with bringing balance, harmony and coordination to the motions? Cerebellum
What part of the brain is associated with higher mental processes such as memory? the frontal lobe
What part of the brain is concerned with general sensation? parietal lobe
What part of the brain is related to the sense of sight? occipital lobe
What part of the brain is concerned with hearing? temporal lobe
What part of the brain are the centers for the control of heart action, breathing, circulation, and other vital processes like blood pressure? the medulla oblongata
What are the three layers of membranes on the outer surface of the brain? meninges
What does the PNS include? 12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves
What is the cranial nerve that provides the sense of smell? The olfactory nerve/first cranial nerve
What cranial nerve controls the roof of the mouth, vocal cords and tone of voice? The tenth or vagus nerve
What cranial nerve is for vision? the second or optic nerve
What three cranial nerves control eye movement? Oculomotor, trochlear, and abducens
What cranial nerve governs sensation of the forehead, face and clenching of the jaw? The sixth or trigeminal
What cranial nerve controls the muscles of the face? The seventh or facial nerve
what cranial nerve controls hearing and balance? The eighth or acoustic
What cranial nerve transmits sensation from the upper mouth and throat? the ninth or glossopharyngeal
What cranial nerve governs the muscle activity of the tongue? The 12th or hypoglossal
what nerve controls the turning of the head from side to side? the 11th or spinal accessory
How much of the eyeball lie recessed in orbit? 5/6
what is the condition called when the pressure increases in the eye and causes blindness? glaucoma
rods respond to low intensities of light and are responsible for what type of vision? night vision
cones require higher light intensities for stimulation and what type of vision? color vision and day vision
what is known as the hearing organ? the organ of corti
A small snail shaped structure where the cochlear duct is located? cochlea
what structure of the brain synthesizes chemicals that are secreted to the pituitary gland to release hormones and to help regulate body temperature? hypothalamus
What is the growth hormone that influences body growth? somatotropin
What is an overproduction or underproduction or somatotropin cause? giantism or dwarfism
An overproduction of somatotropin after the growth years causes what? acromegaly, abnormally large hands, feet and jaw
What does the hormone oxytocin do? stimulates contraction of the muscles of the uterus.
What is a lid-like, leaf-shaped cartilaginous structure that covers the entrance to the larynx and separates it from the pharynx? The epiglottis
What is the "voice box"? The larynx
What is the nerve controlling the diaphragm? the phrenic nerve
What is the nerve controlling the larynx? the vagus nerve
The amount of air left in the lungs after forceful exhalation is about 1,200 ml and is know as what? residual air
What is the wavelike motion of the intestines moving food called? peristalsis
What is the length of the alimentary canal? 9 meters
What is a muscular tube about 25cm/10" long and pierces the diaphragm on the way to the stomach? Esophagus
What is the principal digestive enzyme? pepsinogen
What is a protein-splitting enzyme capable of beginning the digestion of all types of dietary protein? Pepsin
Most food absorption takes place where? In the small intestine
What is the long narrow tube with a blind end, is a pouchlike structure to which there is no known function? the appendix
What is the functional unit of the kidneys? nephron
What are effective blood purifiers and fluid balance regulators? the kidneys
Created by: hull5518
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