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Microbio: RNA Virus

USMLE Step 1

Rhinovirus naked Picornaviridae, common cold, transmitted by respiratory droplets & dried droplets
Echovirus naked Picornaviridae aka enterovirus,fecal-PO transmission,enteric cytopathic human orphan virus,cause aseptic meningitis, upper respiratory infection and diarrhea
Hepatitis A naked Picornaviridae aka enterovirus,fecal-PO transmission,cause infectious hepatitis A/acute viral hepatitis
Polio naked Picornaviridae aka enterovirus,fecal-PO transmission,replicates in oropharynx & small intesting then go to bldstream & replicate in anterior horn killing cells,4 types:asx,abortive,non-paralytic & paralytic,type determined by pt's immune status
Coxsackie A naked Picornaviridae aka enterovirus,fecal-PO transmission,HERPANGINA:fever,sore throat,tender vesicles in oropharynx(post 1/2),HAND-FOOT-MOUTH DISEASE:vesicular rash on hands & feet,& ulcers in mouth
Coxsackie B naked Picornaviridae aka enterovirus,fecal-PO transmission,cause MYOCARITIS:leads to dilated cardiomyopathy & BORNHOLM DISEASE:pleurodynia='Devil's Grip',fever,pleuritic chest pain
Rotavirus naked Reoviridae,fecal-PO transmission,cause pediatric gastroenteritis (#1 cause in children),replicates in small intestine mucosal cells,leads to diarrhea
Colorado Tick Fever naked Reoviridae,vector:Dermacentor wood tick,reservoir:small rodents (chipmunk & squirrels),host:humans,occur in Rocky Mts,sxs:high fever,hemagglutination,retro-orbital pain,severe myalgia,remission several days then fever for several wks
Influenza A, B (enveloped Orthomyxoviridae) respiratory transmission,sxs:fever,chills,hemagglutinin,myalgia,cough 3 dys in healthy,non-immunized individual,cause death in anyone w/ cardiac or pulmonary disease who isnt immunized,atypical pneumonia,2ndary bacterial pneumonia,Reye's syn w/ ASA
Influenza C enveloped Orthomyxoviridae,sxs:fever,chills,hemagglutinin,myalgia,cough 3 dys in healthy,nonimmunized individuals,minor respiratory illness,no tx b/c self-limited,no vaccine
Rubeola: Measles, note 3 C's cough, coryza & conjunctivitis envelope Paramyxoviridae,transmit by respiratory rt,enters upper respiratory 2 bld 2 RES 2 skin progressing as rash from face downwards,mortality >10% those die from encephalitis vs 40% are left deaf &/or mentally retarded,Koplik's Spots,prevent MMR,SSPE
Parainfluenza: Croup enveloped Paramyxoviridae,has 4 serotypes,cause CROUP-subglottitis laryngotracheobronchitis,harsh barking cough & stridor (high pitched sound from turbulent flow in airway);'steeple sign' seen A-P neck XR due to swelling of soft tissue around trachea
Influenza A, B (enveloped Orthomyxoviridae) continued A is endemic w/ potential to become pandemic due to surface glycoproteins H (hemagglutinin) & N (neuraminidase),B is epidemic,dx by FLU OIA or QUICKVUE or ZSTATFLU,tx w/ oseltamivir or zanamivir,prevention by vaccine of inactivated virus,1918 flu = shift
Mumps enveloped Paramyxoviridae,results in parotitis (most common manifestation),orchitis & aseptic meningitis,can cause sterility esp post-puberty
Respiratory Syncytial Virus enveloped Paramyxoviridae,bronchiolitis-pneumonia,#1 lower respiratory infection of infants,also major cause of otitis media in children & pneumonia in elderly,tx supportive + ribavirin,adults affect URT vs child affect LRT,2 serotypes
Rubella: German Measles enveloped Togaviridae transmit via respiratory tract,sxs:fever,malaise,maculopapular rash on face spreads down (post auricular lymphadenopathy),mild & shorter than measles except 4 congenital acquired affect fetal heart,eye & brain,prevent w/ MMR vaccine
Coronavirus: Common Cold enveloped Coronoviridae transmit via respiratory route,2nd most common cause of common cold
Coronavirus: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) enveloped Coronoviridae transmit via respiratory route,severe atypical pneumonia w/ high fever,nonprod cough,dyspnea,headache & hypoxia,CXR shows 'ground glass' infiltates w/o cavitation,dx PCR,tx:ribavirin+steroids
Alpha virus: Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE) enveloped Togaviridae,various encephalitides are caused & all are arboviruses(ar = arthopod, bo = borne THUS arbo),vector:mosquito,reservoir:bird,host:human & horses cause encephalitis,high fever,50% fatal,southeast US
Alpha Virus: Western Equine Encephalitis (WEE) enveloped Togaviridae,various encephalitides are caused & all are arboviruses(ar = arthopod, bo = borne THUS arbo),vector:mosquito,reservoir:bird,host:human & horses cause encephalitis,high fever,maybe fatal,mostly western US
St. Louis Encephalitis enveloped Flaviviridae,vector:mosquito,reservoir:birds,hosts are humans ONLY,cause encephalitis-severe to fatal in the elderly,North America
Yellow (Flavi) Fever enveloped Flaviviridae,vector:Aedes mosquito,reservoir:monkeys,hosts are humans ONLY,cause high fever,black vomitus,headache,sx free for several days, then fever+jaundice+hemorrhage,can b fatal,South America & Africa,Councilman bodies maybe seen in liver
Dengue Fever (Breakbone Fever) enveloped Flaviviridae,vector:mosquito,reservoir:monkeys & humans,world-wide in warm,humid environments.sxs:high fever,rash,bone/joint pain,sx free then high fever w/ new rash
Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever Dengue fever virus w/ re-exposure after having past hx of it causing high fever, shock due to hemorrhage, SEVERE-often fatal
West Nile Encephalitis enveloped Flaviviridae,vector:mosquito,reservoir:birds,esp crows,hosts:humans,originally from Africa,now in Europe,Asia & US,sxs:fever,confusion,ascending muscle weakness & paralysis esp in > 60 yoa
California Encephalitis enveloped Bunyaviridae,vector:mosquito,reservoir:rodents,host:humans,occurs mostly in North ctral US,sxs:mild w/ headache or severe w/ headache,confusion,fever,rarely causes death
Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndome enveloped Bunyaviridae,RoBovirus (ROdent BOrne Virus),Hantavirus Sin Nombre,vector & reservoir:deer mice (urine,feces & saliva),host:human,transmission:respiratory rt,mostly in Western US,sxs:flu-like then acute respiratory failure,60% M&M w/ aid
Lyssavirus, note no tx, but vaccine envelop Rhabdoviridae (Rabies),bullet-shaped capsid,infect any mammal by bite in2 skin,travels retrograde on sensory neurons 2 CNS,cause encephalitis & kills neurons,goes in2 salivary glands,+ Negri bodies,long incubation,sxs:hydrophobia,seizures,100% M&M
Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever enveloped Filoviridae,sxs:fever,hemagglutination,v/d,thrombocytopenia,hemorrhage & shock,DIC,nearly 100% M&M,transmit via body fluids,hosts:monkeys & humans,reservoirs:unknown,bio-warfare agent,tx supportive
Norwalk Gastroenteritis naked Calciviridae,fecal-PO rt,usually occurs @ schools,camps,on cruise ships,sxs:n/v/d x12-24 hrs
Created by: jerrica_08