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Biol 318 Lab 1

eye and ear

What is the non-vascular covering of the eye? fibrous tunic
What 2 parts make up the fibrous tunic? cornea and sclera
a transparent, nonvascular, fibrous coat found at the anterior part of eye and continues toward the posterior as the sclera cornea
a tough, fibrous connective tissue covering on the outer surface sclera
what does the sclera do? gives shape to the eyeball and protects it
3 sections that compose the vascular tunic choroid layer, ciliary body, iris
pigmented, vascularized layer of the vascular tunic choroid layer
what is the function of the choroid layer? nourishes retina and absorbs light (so that it is not reflected back out)
the anterior section of the choroid layer of vascular tunic which connects to the iris by means of muscles and suspensory ligaments ciliary body
what is the function of the suspensory ligaments which arise from the ciliary body? keeps the lens in place
what is the ciliary muscle (body) responsible for? controlling the shape of the lens
a circular donut-shaped band of smooth muscle of the vascular tunic iris
what is the function of the iris? controls the amount of light that enters the eye
distinctive portion of the eye composed of several layers of protein fibers that sits just behind the pupil and iris by suspensory ligaments lens
the interior of the eye contains a large cavity divided into what 2 segments and is separated by what? an anterior segment and posterior segment separated by the lens
this is the larger of the 2 cavities of the eye that lies between the lens and the retina posterior segment
what kind of fluid fills the posterior segment of the eye? 'jellylike' vitreous humor
what is the function of the vitreous humor found in the posterior segment of the eye? helps maintain shape of eyeball and holds the retina in place
does the level of vitreous humor remain constant or change? remains constant
this liquid filling the posterior segment of the eye is clear on models and has an indention in the front that holds the lens vitreous humor
this is the smaller of the two cavities that make up they eye and it contains 2 subdivisions anterior segment (anterior cavity)
what are the 2 subdivisions of the anterior segment of the eye? anterior chamber of the anterior segment and posterior chamber of the anterior segment
this subdivision of the anterior segment of eye lies behind the cornea and in front of the iris anterior chamber of the anterior segment
what kind of fluid fills the anterior chamber of the anterior segment of the eye? aqueous humor
this subdivision of the anterior segment of eye lies behind the iris and in front of suspensory ligaments which holds the lens in place posterior chamber of the anterior segment
what kind of fluid fills the posterior chamber of the anterior segment of the eye? aqueous humor
does the aqueous humor found in the posterior chamber of the anterior segment of the eye remain constant or change? changes - the aqueous humor flows freely and is replaced by a choroid plexus that maintains correct pressure
if the pressure in the eye affected by the aqueous humor being replaced by a choroid plexus is not maintained correctly (excessive pressure), what is the result? glaucoma
this is the inner layer of the eyeball and found in the posterior segment only, and it contains 2 layers retina
what is the primary function of the retina? image formation
this layer of the retina lies next to the choroid layer of the eye and extends over the ciliary bodies and iris, and is nonvisual pigmented layer
this layer of the retina lies over the pigmented layer and ends at the ora serrata (the end of the visual portion of the eye) and has 3 zones of neurons nervous layer
what is the function of the 3 zones of neurons found in the nervous layer of the retina? it is necessary for image formation
what series of specialized cells (photoreceptors) make up the nervous layer of the retina? rods and cones
What is the function of rods? rods are responsible for discriminating b/w different shades of dark and light and permits us to see shapes and movements (dim light)
What is the function of cones? specialized for color vision and sharpness of vision
what kind of cones are there? red, blue, and green cones
What happens if someone is deficient in any of the cones? they have a genetic disorder called color blindness
What is the function of the pigmented layer of the retina? it absorbs light (nonvisual)
this is a blind spot (white spot) found on the retina at the back of they eye that has the optic nerve on the other side optic disc
this structure on the retina at the back of the eye is lateral to the blind spot and directly posterior to the lens; it is an area of high cone density and is also called the "yellow spot" macula lutea
this structure on the retina at the back of the eye is a small pit that is inside of the macula lutea; it contains mostly cones and is the area of greatest visual acuity fovea centralis
how is eye movement achieved? by contraction and relaxation of extrinsic muscles of the eye (red on the models)
what are the 3 cranial nerves that control eye movement? ????
what is the path of light for vision? (flow chart) light enters thru cornea>> ant chamber of ant segment (aqueous humor) >>pupil >> post chamber of ant segment (aqueous humor) >> lens>> post segment (vitreous humor) >> retina (rods & cones)>> photoreceptors receive the light & convert to a nervous impulse
How does visual interpretation take place in the rods and cones (photoreceptors)? pick up stimuli >send impulse to bipolar neurons which synapse w/ganglion neurons> these axons join together in back of eyeball w/o rods & cones(blind spot of optic disc) >leave as opticnerve>medial optic fibers crossover@ optic chiasma>lateralfibers stay@original side>formed optictracts progress to nucleus in thalamus>they synapse &send impulses to visual areas of cerebral cortex in occipital lobe>here is visual interpret
the cartilaginous external portion of the ear auricle (pinna)
what is the function of the auricle (pinna)? tends to collect and funnel sound waves toward the auditory canal
the ear lobe lobule
S-shaped passageway beginning at the auricle and ending at the ear drum external acoustic meatus
what are located along the canal (external acoustic meatus) and what is the function of this? glands; they secrete ear wax (cerumen) which lubricates and protects the ear from entrance of foreign particles
this ear structure vibrates when sound waves hit it tympanic membrane (eardrum)
another name for malleus hammer
another name for incus anvil
shaped like the stirrup on a saddle and the base of it is in contact with the oval window on most models stirrup or stapes
connects the middle ear to the throat pharyngotympanic (auditory) tube; eustachian tube
what are the functions of the eustachian tube? allows you to equalize the pressure of the middle ear cavity with the external pressure so that the tympanic membrane can vibrate freely; also how microbes can move from the throat to the middle ear & cause infection
part of the internal ear anatomy that is filled with perilymph semicircular canals
part of internal ear anatomy; bony structure b/w the semicircular canals and the cochlea vestibule
what are the semicircular canals and vestibule associated with? equilibrium
internal ear anatomy that is below and a little behind the oval window round window
the snail-like bone containing a membranous labyrinth filled with endolymph and the Organ of Corti cochlea
What are the Organ of Corti? are the hair cells and the receptors for hearing
Describe how the hair cells work. When the hair cells bend, the sound waves are converted to nervous impulses and are carried to the temporal lobe of the cerebral cortex to the hearing functional area
part of the internal ear anatomy that branches into the vestibular nerve and cochlear nerve vestibulocochlear nerve
Trace the path of sound through your diagram of the ear. external acoustic meatus > tympanic membrane > hammer > anvil > stirrup > oval window > vestibule > cochlea > Organ of Corti > cochlear nerve > vestibulocohclear nerve > temporal cortex of brain
What can damage of the hair cells lead to? hearing loss
this leaves the eye and contains medial and lateral fibers optic nerve
this has the medial fibers of the optic nerve which cross over optic chiasma
these contain the lateral fiber of same side and medial fibers of opposite side optic tract
How do the fibers in the optic tract synapse? They synapse with neurons in the lateral geniculate body of the thalamus, whose axons form the optic radiation, terminating in the visual cortex in the occipital lobe of the brain
What is accomodation? The ability of the eye to focus differentially for objects of near vision
What is the condition resulting from the decrease in elasticity of the lens due to age? What does it make difficult? Presbyopia, "old vision." It makes it difficult to focus close vision.
What is the average near point vision? 10cm in young adults - closer in children and farther in old age
when vision is normal and no need for vision correction; focal point is the retina emmetropic eye
nearsighted - foal point is in front of the retina (objects far away seemed blurred) myopic eye
farsighted - focal point is behind the retina (objects closer seem blurred) hyperopic eye
what are lenses or glasses used for? to adjust the focal point so that it lands on the retina
Describe the numbers on the Snellan eye chart. 20 = vision is normal >20 = less than normal <20 = better than normal
What is astigmatism and what is it caused by? A blurred vision problem caused by irregularities in the curvatures of the lens and/or the cornea
this provides 3-D vision and an accurate means of locating objects in space b/c the visual fields of each eye overlaps binocular vision
type of vision see in animals that have eyes on the sides of their heads panoramic vision
Created by: carolineprather



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