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A&P Ch. 3

Anatomy and Physiology Ch. 3

QuestionAnswer
the study of cellular structure and function is: cytology
cells the structural and functional and unit of all living matter
Cell membrane separates intracellular (inside the cell) material from extracellular (outside the cell) material
when a membrane chooses the substances allowed to cross it the membrane is: semipermeable
nucleus the control center
what surround the nucleus? nuclear membrane
nuclear membrane double layered wall the contains large pores that allow the free movement of certain substances between the nucleus and cytoplasm
nucleoplasm a fluid substance the fills the nucleus
nucleolus synthesizes ribosomes that move through nuclear pores into the cytoplasm
chromatin composed mainly of strands of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), the carriers of genetic codes
cytoplasm the "gel in the cell" is found inside the cell but not in the nucleus
Cytosol the intra cellular fluid and is composed primarily of water, electrolytes, proteins, and nutrients
organelles inclusion bodies are temporary structures that appear and disappear they are dispersed throughout the cytoplasm; each organelle has a specific role
mitochondria tiny, slipper-shaped organelles. the number of them per cell varies, depending on the metabolic activity of the cell
cristae inner layer of the mitochondrial membrane
Ribosomes cytoplasmic organelles involved with protein synthesis
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) a network of membranes within the cytoplasm.
Rough Endoplasmic reticulum (RER) have ribosomes along its surface rough sandpaper-like appearance. primarily concerned w/ protein synthesis
Smooth Endoplasmic reticulum (SER) is primarily involved w/ the synthesis of lipids, steroids, glycerides, and glycogen in skeletal muscle and liver cells
Golgi Apparatus a series of flattened membranous sacs. proteins synthesized along the RER are transported to the Golgi apparatus through channels formed by the ER. puts the finishing touches on the protein.
Lysosomes membranous sacs containing powerful digestive enzymes
cytoskeleton composed of threadlike structures called microfilaments and microtubules. it helps maintain shape of the cell and assists the cell in various forms of cellular movement.
centrioles are paired, rod-shaped, and short micro-tubular structures that form the spindle apparatus in a dividing cell
microvilli cells that are particularly involved with the movement of large amounts of water and its dissolved solute, the membrane forms accordion like folds
cilia short hair-like projections on the outer surface of the cell membrane. they use wave like movements to move substances across the surface of the cell.
Flagella similar to cilia in that both are hair-like projections of the cell membrane. flagella, however, are thicker, longer, and fewer in number; they help move the cell
passive transport require no additional energy in the form of ATP. mechanisms that move substances cross the membrane include diffusion, facilitated diffusion, osmosis, and filtration
Active Transport require an input of energy in the form of ATP. EXAMPLE: ball moving up a hill
Diffusion the most common transport mechanism. the movement of a substance from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
Equilibrium the point at which no further net diffusion occurs
facilitated diffusion a form of diffusion that is responsible for the transport of many substances (substances move from a high concentration toward a lower concentration
osmosis a special case of diffusion. the diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
tonicity the ability of a solution to affect the volume and pressure within a cell
isotonic solution the same concentration as intracellular fluid (cell neither loses nor gains water)
Hypotonic solutions having a solute concentration less than that of a reference solution (causes RBCs to burst)
hemolysis breakdown of erythrocytes
Hypertonic solution having a solute concentration greater than that of a reference solution (salt solution)
filtration water and dissolved substances cross the membrane in response to differences in pressures
why is it necessary to pump certain substances? because the amount of some substances in the cell is already so great that the only way to move more additional substances into the cell is to pump them in.
Endocytosis a transport mechanism that involves the intake of food or liquid by the cell membrane. the particle is too large to move across the membrane by diffusion, so it is surrounded by the cell membrane which engulfs it and takes it into the cell
phagocytosis if endocytosis involves a solid particle it is called:
pinocytosis when the cell ingests a water droplet it is called:
Exocytosis moves substances out of cells
cell division necessary for the body's growth, repair, and reproduction
mitosis involved in the bodily growth and repair. splitting of one mother cell into two identical "daughter cells."
Cell cycle the sequence of events that the cell goes through from one mitotic division to the next
Interphase the cell carries on with its normal functions and gets ready for mitosis through growth and DNA replication. Interphase is divided into three phases first gap phase (G1), phase (S), and second gap phase (G2)
First Gap Phase (G1) the carries on its normal activities and begins to make the DNA and other substances necessary for cell division
Phase(S) the cell duplicates its chromosomes, thereby making enough DNA for two identical cells
Second Gap Phase (G2) Final preparatory phase for cell division; it includes the synthesis of enzymes and other proteins needed for mitosis
what are the four phases of mitosis in the correct order? 1)Prophase 2)Metaphase 3)anaphase 4)Telophase
Prophase First in mitosis, the chromosomes coil so tightly that they become visible under a light microscope. late in this phase the nuclear membrane disappears
Metaphase the chromatids are aligned in a narrow central zone; spindle fibers connect the chromatids and centrioles
Anaphase begins when the centromere splits and the chromatids are pulled to opposite poles
Telophase each new cell reverts to the interphase state; nuclei reform, the chromosomes uncoil, and the chromatin strands reappear
Cytokinesis begins late in anaphase, is the pinching of the cell membrane to split the cytoplasm into two distinct cells
Differentiate when the cells start to specialize
what does it mean when a tissue biopsy shows many poorly differentiated cells? it means that the tissue cells have failed to differentiate or specialize
stem cells are relatively undifferentiated or unspecialized cells whose only function is the production of additional unspecialized cells
how are tumors classified? Benign (noncancerous) or malignant (cancerous)
metastasis the spreading of cancer cells
apoptosis programmed sequence of events that leads to cell death
the plasma membrane is composed of? A bilayer of phospholipids
the 'tails' of a phospholipid molecule are? hydrophobic
microfilaments do what? anchor the cytoskeleton to integral proteins cell membrane
Tublin is a protein that assembles into filamentous tubes (microtubules)
most of the ATP required to power cellular operations is produced in the? mitochondria
organelles that break down fatty acids and hydrogen peroxide are? peroxisomes
when activated, lysosomes function in? Digestion of foreign material
which organelle is most prominent in cells that make large amounts of protein? Nucleolus
most of a cell's DNA is located in its? Nucleus
the functional units of DNA that contain the instructions for making one or more proteins are? Genes
in cells that are not dividing, chromosomes uncoil to form a tangle of fine fibers known as? Chromatin
the process of protein formation directed by mRNA is called? Translation
The process of forming mRNA is called? Transcription
the duplication of DNA is? Replication
the copying of DNA to mRNA is? Transcription
The reading of the mRNA by the cell to make a protein is? Translation
two types of vesicular transport include? endocytosis and exocytosis
a defense cell engulfing a bacterium illustrates phagocytosis
when is DNA replicated? Interphase
A cell duplicates its chromosomes during the ___ phase. S
nuclear division of somatic cells is known as? mitosis
An alternate term for tumor is? Neoplasm
________ are responsible for identifying and digesting damaged or denatured proteins Proteasomes
_________ cells are all of the cells of the body except the reproductive cells (sperm and oocytes) Somatic
Histones are found in? Nucleosomes
A(n) _____ is a mutant of a regulatory gene that causes cancer. oncogene
What are the building blocks of all plants and animals? cells
what do cells do? -respond to the environment -maintain homeostasis at the cellular level -modify structure and function over time
Integral Proteins cannot be removed w/o causing harm to the membrane.
Peripheral Proteins bound to the inter or outer surface of the membrane
anchoring proteins bind the cell membrane to other structures, cytoskeleton inside the cell, other cells outside the cell
Recognition proteins (identifiers) -label cells normal or abnormal -many are glycoproteins
Receptor proteins receptive to extracellular molecules called ligands
carrier Proteins transport specific solutes through membrane
channels regulate water flow and solutes through the membrane
enzymes Catalyze reactions in extracecellular or extracellular fluid
Created by: crystell