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M6 13-005

Exam 18: Thought Disorders

Delirium a rapid change in consciousness that occurs over a short time. It can occur at any age. Possible causes include hypoxia, electrolyte imbalances, drugs, pain, fatigue and infections
Dementia an irreversible medical condition that causes chronic confusion secondary to cerebral disease
Symptoms of Delirium Overwhelming anxiety, difficulty focusing or sustaining attention, disorientation, tremors, florid delusions, illusions and/or hallucinations (tactile, visual, olfactory), disturbed psychomotor activity and sleep-wake cycles, incoherence
Symptoms of Dementia Memory loss, inappropriate behaviors, impaired judgment, anxiety, paranoia, personality changes, lack of initiative and difficulty acquiring new skills or performing complex familiar tasks. (Slow and progressive)
The most common form of dementia is Alzheimer's Disease (AD)
Other types or causes of dementia include Vascular dementia, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, alcoholic dementia, HIV/AIDS-related dementia, Huntington's disease, inflammatory disease (i.e. syphilis), tumors, brain trauma and Parkinson's disease
Delusions is a fixed, false belief that cannot be corrected by feedback and is not accepted as true by others in the culture.
Types of Delusions Delusions of Grandeur. Ideas of Reference. Persecution. Somatic Delusions. Thought Broadcasting. Thought Insertion. Thought Withdrawal.
Hallucinations are perceptual sensory experience without an actual sensory stimulus.
Hallucinations include Auditory, visual, olfactory and tactile hallucinations
Auditory Hallucincations Hearing voices
Visual Hallucinations Visual images, often disturbing images
Olfactory Hallucinations Sensing various smells
Tactile Hallucinations Example is a sensation of bugs crawling on the skin
the most common type of hallucination of the patient with schizophrenia Auditory hallucinations
Schizophrenia Characteristics are distortion of reality; disturbance of language and communication; withdrawal from social interaction; and the disorganization and fragmentation of thought, perception, and emotional reaction.
One of the most profoundly disabling mental illnesses you will ever encounter is: Schizophrenia
The neurobiological model includes the belief patients with schizophrenia have a biologic predisposition or vulnerabilities that are exacerbated by environmental stressors
Researchers have noted brain tissue changes which are manifested with schizophrenia, what happens The ventricles of the brain are larger, with the left ventricle larger than the right, and the cerebral cortex is smaller. This is thought to account for the disorganized thinking, hallucinations and delusions.
What happens with dopamine levels with schizophrenia? There is an excess of Dopamine in the center of the brain and lowered Dopamine levels in the prefrontal cortex region.
Different categories of schizophrenia Positive. Excessive. Negative. Absent.
Positive Behavior patterns Delusions. Hallucinations. Formal Thought Disorder. Repeated instances of bizarre or disorganized behavior. Disordered thinking. Concreteness.
Negative Behavior Patterns Apathy (avolition). Social Withdrawal. Alogia. Flat Affect. Anhedonia.
5 subtypes of schizophrenia Disorganized type. Paranoid type. Catatonic type. Undifferentiated type. Residual type.
Disorganized type of schizophrenia Flat or inappropriate affect, incoherence; prognosis is poor. Has an insidious onset that usually begins in adolescence. There is more disorganization of the personality and habits. Emotions are shallow and inappropriate.
Paranoid Type of Schizophrenia Delusions auditory hallucinations; prognosis is good with treatment. Suspiciousness, projection and delusions of persecution. Hallucinations are tied into the delusions and may act out with aggression or combative behavior.
Catatonic Type of Schizophrenia Stupor, negativism, rigidity, excitement, posturing; prognosis is fair. Includes withdrawal, regression, repetitive stereotyped actions, odd mannerisms and waxy flexibility, strange positioning of body parts, mutism and hallucination.
Undifferentiated Schizophrenia elusions, hallucinations, incoherence, gross disorganization (does not fit criteria of other types); prognosis is fair.
Residual Type of Schizophrenia Demonstrates typical signs and symptoms associated with schizophrenia without displaying evidence of gross disorganization, incoherence, delusions, and hallucinations; prognosis is poor.
Stages of Schizophrenia Prodromal Phase. Pre-psychotic Phase. Acute Phase. Residual Phase.
Prodromal Phase of Schizophrenia Begins in adolescence with a lack of energy or motivation and withdrawal. Other symptoms at this stage include blunted affect, odd beliefs and ideas, excessive interest in philosophy or religion, neglected self-care or hygiene, etc.
Pre-Psychotic Phase of Schizophrenia Presents as a desire to be left alone. Appears quiet and passive. Hallucinations and delusions may be present. The family usually recognizes that the individual has changed or is acting oddly.
Acute Phase of Schizophrenia Signs and symptoms may vary widely, but disturbances in thought, perception, emotion and behavior are apparent. Often the individual loses contact with reality and is unable to function in the most basic ways.
Residual Phase of Schizophrenia Symptoms resemble those of the prodromal phase. Often during this phase there is a period of remission wherein the individual is able to experience some relief of symptoms and manage some basic activities in life.
Treatment for Schizophrenia Psychotherapy. Antipsychotic Drug Therapy. Long-term social support.
Created by: jtzuetrong