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Clinical Terms 3

Clinical Terms for Exam 3

QuestionAnswer
diabetic neuropathy A degenerative neurological disorder that may develop in people with diabetes mellitus.
Horner's syndrome A condition characterized by unilateral loss of sympathetic innervation to the face (i.e. leading to constriction of eye)
audiogram a graphical record of a subject's performance during a hearing test
bone conduction test a test for conductive deafness, usually involving placement of a vibrating tuning fork against the skull
cataract an abnormal lens that has lost its transparency
cochlear implant insertion of electrodes into the cochlear nerve to provide external stimulation that provides some sensititivity to sounds in the absence of a functional organ of Corti.
conductive deafness deafness resulting from conditions in the middle ear that block the transfer of vibrations from the tympanic membrane to the oval window
mastoiditis infection and inflammation of the mastoid air cells
meniere's disease acute vertigo caused by the rupture of the wall of the membranous labyrinth
myringotomy drainage of the middle ear througha surgical opening in the tympanum
nerve deafness deafness resulting from problems within the cochlea or along the auditory pathway
nystagmus short, jerk eye movements that sometimes appear after damage to the brain stem or inner ear
referred pain pain sensations from visceral organs, often perceived as originating in more superficial areas inervated by the same spinal nerves
scotomas abnormal blind spots that are fixed in position
vertigo an inappropriate sense of motion
diabetes insipidus a disorder that develops when the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland no longer releases adequate amounts of ADH
diabetes mellitus a disorder characterized by glucose concentrations high enough to overwhelm the kidney's reabsorption capabilities
exophthalmos protrusion of the yes, a symptom of hyperthyroidism
goiter a diffuse englargement of the thyroid gland
insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM)/ type 1 diabetes/ juvenille-onset diabetes a type of diabetes mellitus; the primary cause is inadequate insulin production by the beta cells of the pancreatic islets
ketoacidosis a condition in which large numbers of ketone bodies in the blood lead to a dangerously low blood pH
myxedema symptoms of severe hypothyroidism, which include subcutaneous swelling, dry skin, hair loss, low body temperature, muscular weakness, and slow reflexes
non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) ; type 2 diabetes or maturity-onset diabetes a type of diabetes mellitus in which insulin levels are normal or elevated but peripheral tissues no longer respond normally
thyrotoxic crisis a period when a subject with acute hyperthyroidism experiences an extremely high fever, rapid heart rate, and the malfunctioning of a variety of physiological systems
angina pectoris a condition in which exertion or stress can produce severe chest pain, resulting from temporary circulatory insufficiency and ischemia when the heart's work load increases.
bradycardia a heart rate that is slower than normal
cardiac arrhythmias abnormal patterns of cardiac contraction
cardiac tamponade a condition resulting from pericardial irritation and inflammation, in which fluid collects in the pericardial sac and restricts cardiac output
cardiomyopathies a group of diseases characterized by the progressive, irreversible degeneration of the myocardium
carditis a general term indicating inflammation of the heart
coronary artery disease (CAD) degenerative changes in the coronary ciruclation
coronary thrombosis a blockage due to the formation of a clot (thrombus) at a plaque in a coronary artery
heart failure a condition i which the heart weakens and peripheral tissues suffer from oxygen and nutrient deprivation
heart murmur a rushing, gurgling sound caused by blood regurgitation back through faulty heart valves
mitral valve prolapse a condition in which the mitral valve cusps do not close properly because of abnormally long (or short) chordae tendineae or malfunctioning papillary muscles
myocardial infarction a condition in which the coronary circulation becomes blocked and the cardiac muscle cells die from oxygen starvation; also called a HEART ATTACK
rheumatic heart disease (RHD) a disorder in which the heart valves become thickened and stiffen into a partially closed position, affecting the efficiency of the pumping action of the heart
tachycardia a heart rate that is faster than normal
valvular stenosis a condition in which the opening between the heart valves is narrower than normal.
aneurysm a bulge in the weakened wall of a blood vessel, usually an artery
arteriosclerosis a thickening and toughening of arterial walls
atherosclerosis a type of artheriosclerosis characterized by changes in the endothelial lining and the formation of plaques
hemorrhoids varicose veins in the walls of the rectum and/or anus, often associated with pregnancy or frequent straining to force bowel movements
pulmonary embolism circulatory blockage caused by the trapping of a freed thrombus in a pulmonary artery
thrombus A stationary blood clot within a blood vessel
varicose veins sagging, swollen veins distorted by gravity and the failure of the venous valves
asthma a condition characterized by unusually sensitive, irritable, inflamed conducting passageways
atelectasis a partially or completely collapsed lung
bronchitis an inflammation of the bronchial lining
cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) applying cycles of compression to the rib cage and mouth-to-mouth breathing to maintain circulatory and respiratory function
cystic fibrosis (CF) a relatively common, lethal inherited disease in which mucous secretions in the lungs become too thick to be transported easily.
emphysema a chronic, progressive condition characterized by shortness of breath and resulting from the destruction of respiratory exchange surfaces
epistaxis a nosebleed caused by trauma, infection, allergies, hypertension, or other factors
Heimlich maneuver a method of applying abdominal pressure to force the expulsion of foreign objects lodged in the trachea or larynx
laryngitis infection or inflammation of the larynx
lung cancer a class of aggressive malignancies originating in the bronchial passageways or aleveoli
pleural effusion an abnormal accumulation of fluid within the pleural cavities
pneumonia a condition caused by an infection of the lobules of the lung and characterized by a decline in respiratory function due to fluid leakage into the alveoli and/or swelling and contriction of the respiratory bronchioles
pneumothorax the entry of air into the pleural cavity
pulmonary embolism blockage of a pulmonary artery by a blood clot, fat mass, or air bubble
respiratory distress syndrome (RDS0 a condition resulting from inadequate surfactant production; characterized by collapse of the alveoli and an inability to maintain adequate levels of gas exchange at the lungs
silicosis, abestosis and anthracosis serious clinical conditions caused by the inhalation of dust or other particulate matter in sufficient quantities to overload the respiratory defense system, resulting in lung scarring and a reduction in respiratory function.
thoracentesis removal of a sample of pleural fluid for diagnostic evaluation
tracheostomy insertion of a tube through an incision in the anterior tracheal wall to bypass a foreign body or damaged laynx
tuberculosis infection of the lungs by the bacteria Myobacterium tuberculosis. Symptoms are variable but usuay include coughing and chest pain, with fever, night sweats, fatigue, and weight loss.
Created by: afogel