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M6 13-005

Exam 17: Care of the Patient with Cancer

Carciogenesis: the process by which normal cells transform into cancerous cells.
Primary Prevention: consists of changes in lifestyle habits to eliminate or reduce exposure to carcinogens.
About 10% of cancers are hereditary and arise from genetic mutations.
Cancer occurs when normal cells mutate, and begin to proliferate
Tumors are named for parent tissue, location of the growth, its cellular makeup, or the person by whom it was identified.
Tumors are classified grade 1 to 4 by the degree of malignancy with 4 being a neoplasm most unlike the parent tissue and therefore most malignant.
Tumor, Nodes, Metastasis system (TNM), tumors are staged by size, extent of spread to lymph nodes and extent of metastasis to other organs.
The only sure way to know if one has a malignancy is with a tissue biopsy, a sample of tissue for pathological examination.
Incisional biopsy is the removal of a portion of tissue for examination, such as when a polyp is removed during endoscopy.
Excisional biopsy is the removal of a complete lesion, such as a suspicious mole.
Needle aspiration biopsy is the process of aspirating fluid or cells from suspicious tissue by use of a needle.
Computerized Tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) use sophisticated imaging to examine suspicious tissues, especially very small, deep lesions.
. Radioisotope or nuclear medicine studies (similar to bone scans) use radioactive materials that known to be absorbed by certain growths such as thyroid and brain tumors which "light up" on imaging.
Ultrasound uses painless high-frequency sound waves to visualize internal organs to look for tumors.
Elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood levels may indicate the presence of prostate cancer, but not always. Further tests are ordered by the evaluating doctor if the PSA is suspiciously high.
Elevated blood levels of alkaline phosphatase, serum calcitonin and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) may also indicate presence of cancer
Stool examination for blood (guaiac testing) is commonly used to detect occult (hidden) blood in the stool that may be the result of bleeding from pre-cancerous polyps or cancerous tissue.
The primary goal of cancer surgery is remove all malignant cancer cells and is usually considered first as the best alternative.
Sealed Internal Radiation implant therapy (brachytherapy) the insertion of a capsule, bead, wire, catheter or other applicator that contains radioactive material.
Erythropoietin (Epogen, Procrit) may be prescribed to improve red blood cell production.
Packed red blood cell transfusions may be needed when the hematocrit falls below 28%
When the platelet count drops below _____, a platelet transfusion may be needed. 20,000 mm3
Stomatitis is a mouth and throat inflammation caused by destruction or lack of repair of the cells that line the oral cavity
Tumor Lysis Syndrome (TLS) an oncologic emergency resulting from the rapid destruction of cancer cells causing a buildup of high levels of potassium, phosphate, and uric acid in the patient's bloodstream. Low calcium serum levels may also occur.
TLS is most frequently associated with Chemotherapy patients with large tumors.
Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) process of replacing diseased or damaged bone marrow with normally functioning bone marrow that is harvested autologously from the affected individual or from a compatible donor.
BMT is usually required in patients with severe bone marrow depression from high dose chemotherapy or advanced cancer
Bone marrow transplantation restores the body's ability to produce blood cells thus prolonging life and increasing the ability to fight infection and the cancer itself.
Marrow is harvested by multiple needle aspirations from ____ ____ ____ while the patient is under general or spinal anesthesia. the iliac crest
A promising alternative to bone marrow transplantation is peripheral stem cell transplant (PSCT).
Created by: jtzuetrong