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Anatomy &Physiology


define anatomy Study of body parts visible to the naked eye, such as heart or bones
define physiology the study of the function of body parts and the body as whole.
Explain how anatomy and physiology are related Parts of your body form a well-organized unit, and each of those parts has a job to do to make the body operate as a whole. Structure determines function
Name the levels of structural organization that make up the human body and explain how they are related Atoms, cell, tissue, organ, organ system organism.
Organ system: integumentary system For external body covering, sweat and oil glands, location of cutaneous. SKIN
Organ system: skeletal system protects & supports body organs, provides framework for muscles, blood cells are formed within bone, stores minerals
Organ system: muscular system movement, facial expression,posture, produces heat
Organ system: Nervous system fast acting control of the body, responds to internal and external change by activating muscles and glands.
Organ system: Endocrine system glands secrete hormones that regulate certain processes in cells like: growth, reproduction, nutrient use
Organ system:Cardiovascular system Blood Vessels transport blood which carry: oxygen, carbon dioxide, waste. The heat pumps blood.
Organ system: Lymphatic system picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it o blood. Disposes of waste in lymphatic stream, involved in Immunity
Organ system: Respiratory System Keeps blood constantly supplied with oxygen, and removes carbon dioxide. Gas exchanges occur through the lungs
Organ system: Digestive System Breaks down food into absorbable units that enter the blood for distribution to body cells. What ever is not used is disposed as feces.
Organ system: Urinary System Eliminates nitrogenous waste from body. Regulars water, electrolytes. Acid base balance of the blood
Organ system: Reproductive System Production of offspring. Males: testes-produce sperm and male hormone (Estrogen) Females: ovaries-produce eggs and female sex hormone (testosterone)
The functions that humans must perform to maintain life Movement, Digestion, Metabolism, Reproduction, Growth
Metabolism Breaking down larger structures into simpler building blocks, making larger structures from smaller ones
Define Homeostasis The body's ability to maintain relatively stable internal conditions.
Importance of Homeostasis A body's normal balance system
Negative feedback Includes most homeostatic control mechanisms. Shuts off the original stimulus, or reduces its intensity. Works like a household thermostat
Anatomical Planes: Saggital Section Divides the body to left and right (mid line)
Anatomical Planes: Frontal (Coronal Section) Divides the body into anterior and posterior
Anatomical Planes: Transverse section cuts the body into inferior and superior
Body Cavities: Dorsal Body Cavity BACK Cranial Cavity & Spinal Cavity
Body Cavities: Ventral Cavity FRONT Thoracic Cavity & Abdominal Cavity
The parts of an atom Protons(+) Neutrons Electrons
Isotope Have the same # of protons, Vary in # of neutrons.
96% of the body is composed of which elements Carbon (C) Oxygen (O) Hydrogen (H) Nitrogen (N)
Importance of water Most abundant inorganic compound, Vital properties: high heat capacity, Polarity/solvent properties, chemical reactivity, cushioning
How is the molecule held together Hydrogen Bonds and so is DNA
Calcium Ca
Carbon C
Hydrogen H
Oxygen O
Nitrogen N
Sodium Na
Phosphorous P
3 types of bond Covalent, Ionic, Chemical
Covalent Bonds shared
Ionic Bonds Charged
Hydrogen Bonds Mixed
4 organic molecules that make up the human body components Carbohydrates, lipids, Proteins, & Nucleic Acid
Cell Basic unit of life
Organelle Metabolic machinery of the cell, "little organs" that perform functions for the cell
Created by: 1335810184