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MA 103 Midterm

flexion bending of a body part or decreasing the angle of a joint
extension straightening a body part or increasing the angle of a joint
hyperextension extending a body part past the normal anatomical position
dorsiflexion pointing the toes up
plantar flexion pointing the toes down
ADDuction moving a body part toward the midline
ABDuction moving a body part away from the midline
rotation twisting a body part; for example turning your head from side to side
circumduction moving a part in a circle; for example moving your arm in a circular motion
pronation turning the palm of the hand down or laying face down
supination turning the palm of the hand up or laying face up
inversion turning the sole of the foot medially
eversion turning the sole of the foot laterally
retraction moving a body part posteriorly
protraction moving a body part anteriorly
elevation lifting a body part; for example elevating your shoulders as in shrugging
depression lowering a body part; for example lowering your shoulders
which neurotransmitter do SKELETAL muscle fibers respond to? acetylcholine
the neurotransmitter acetylcholine causes skeletal muscles to do what? contract
which neurotransmitter causes skeletal muscles to relax? acetylcholinesterase
a rythmic contraction that pushes substances through tubes of the body, such as the lower 2/3 of the esophagus peristalsis
name the 2 neurotransmitters involved in smooth muscle contraction acetylcholine norepinepherine
which type of muscle has intercalated discs? cardiac muscle
how many different types of muscle are there? 3: skeletal, smooth and cardiac
which 2 neurotransmitters does cardiac muscle respond to? acetylcholine norepinepherine
does acetylcholine slow the hearts rate or speed it up?? slows the hearts rate
Does norepinepherine slow the hearts rate or speed it up? speed the hearts rate
ATP or adenosine triphospate is a type of what? chemical energy needed for sustained or repeated muscle contraction
muscle fatigue is a condition in which a muscle has lost it's ability to contract. It usually develops because of an accumulation of what? lactic acid
this structure covers entire skeletal muscles and separates them for eachother fascia
this tough, cord-like structure is made of fibrous connective tissue that connects muscles to bones tendon
this though, sheet like structure is made of fibrous connective tissue. It attaches muscles to other muscles. aponeurosis
a tough fibrous band of tissue that connects bone to bone ligament
this muscle is called the kissing muscle, it helps you to PUCKER UP! orbicularis oris
this muscle allows the eye to close orbicularis oculi
these muscles close the jaw, and help you chew your foood masseter
this muscle pulls the arm across the chest pectoralis major
this muscle acts to abduct and extend the arm at the shoulder deltoid
this muscle flexes the arm at the elbow, and rotates the hand laterally biceps brachii
this muscle separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity, and it's contraction causes INSPIRATION the diaphragm
the contractions of these muscles expands and then lowers the ribs during breathing external and internal intercostals
this muscle extends the thigh gluteus maximus
these 3 muscles together function to flex the leg at the knee and extend the leg at the thigh and are know as the ______ (bicpes femoris, semitendinosus, semimembranosus) hamstring
this muscle flexes the foot and flexes the leg at the knee. It is most commonly referred to as the "calf muscle" gastrocnemius
how many chambers are there in the heart? 4 right and left atrium right and left ventricle
how many valves are there in the heart? 2 tricuspid v. on the right bicuspid or mitral v. on the left
in which direction do arteries transport blood? towards or away from the heart? away
in which direction to veins transport blood? towards or away from the heart? towards
what are capillaries? small, thin walled vessels that interconnect the smallest arteries with the smallest veins
what is the function of a capillary? they function to permit the exchange of nutrients, dissolved gasses, and waste products between the blood and surrounding tissues
this is a membrane that covers the heart the pericardium
this is the muscular wall of the heart, that forms both the atrium and the ventricles the myocardium
the inner surface of the heart is referred to as the endocardium
when referring to the anatomy of the heart, where is the apex? the inferior pointed tip
when referring to the anatomy of the heart, where is the base? the superior end of the heart, where the great veins and arteries of the circulatory system are connected
folds of fibrous tissue that extend into the openings between the atrium and the ventricles valves
where does the right atrium receive it's blood from? SVC and IVC superior and inferior vena cava.
is the blood that enters the right atrium oxygenated or deoxygenated? deoxygenated
when blood leaves the right atrium, where does it go next? the right ventricle
after the blood leaves the right atrium, which valve does it pass through to get to the right ventricle? the TRIcuspid valve
after the blood leaves the right ventricle, where does it go next? to the lungs
which vessels does the blood travel from the right ventricle to the lungs in? the pulmonary arteries
what is the name of the valve between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery? the pulmonary semi-lunar valve
when the blood returns to the heart, after it's journey though the lungs, which vessel does it take to get there? the pulmonary veins
the blood enters which chamber of the heart after it leaves the lungs? the left atrium
after the blood leaves the left atrium, it passes into the left ventricle through which valve? the bicuspid or mitral valve
when the blood leaves the left ventricle, where does it go next? the body
which vessel does the blood use to leave the left ventricle? the ascending aorta
which major vessel takes the blood from the heart to the rest of the body? the ascending and descending aorta
when comparing the right and left ventricles, what is the major difference? the wall of the right ventricle is thinner than the wall of the left ventricle
why is the wall of the right ventricle thinner than the wall of the left ventricle? because the blood does not need to travel as far when leaving the right ventricle as it does when leaving the left ventricle. more force is needed to pump the blood to the body, than is needed to pump the blood only to the close by lungs.
what is mitral valve prolapse? a condition in which the mitral valve cusps do not close properly which causes some regurgitation of blood back into the left atrium
what is a myocardial infarction? a heart attack
a fixed blockage in a vessel is known as a coronary thrombosis
a stationary blood clot is known as a thrombus
a graph containing a record of the electrical events monitored by electrodes attached to the body surface is known as an ecg electrocardiogram
1 heartbeat is considered to be 1 ____ ______ cardiac cycle
"Lubb" is the first heart sound, and it occurs when? when the ventricles contract and the tricuspid and bicuspid valves snap shut
"Dubb" is the second heart sound and occurs when? when the atria contract and the pulmonary and aortic semi-lunar valves snap shut
the abnormal heart sound made when blood leaks back into the atria when the ventricles contract is called? a murmur
the sinoatrial or SA node is also known as the heart's ____ __________ natural pacemaker
the atrioventricular node, or AV node is located where? between the atria, just above the ventricles
this node is located in the wall of the right atrium and generates an impulse that flows to the AV node the SA node
this structure is located between the ventricles and splits into 2 branches before sending the electrical impulse to the purkinje fibers the bundle of His
these fibers are located in the lateral walls of the ventricles. After the impulse flows through these fibers, the ventricles contract and the SA node will start the flow of a new impulse purkinje fibers
physicians use a test to tell if the cardiac conduction system is working properly. what is the name of this test? electrocardiogram or ecg
in a normal ecg, 3 waves are produced. what letters do we use to represent these 3 waves? P, QRS, and T
what does the P wave represent on an ecg? atrial depolarization and the spread of the electrical impulse throughout the right and left atrium
what does the QRS complex represent on an ecg? the spread of the electrical impulse through the ventricles (ventricular depolarization)
does the p wave come before or after the QRS complex? before
of the 3, QR and S, which is ALWAYS a negative wave form on an ecg? Q
what does the T wave represent on an ecg? ventricular repolarization
blood vessels form a closed pathway that carries blood from the heart to the cells and back again. these vessels include .... arteries, arterioles, veins, venuels, and capillaries
arteries always carry blood to or away from the heart? away
the percentage of red blood cells in a sample of blood is called hematocrit hee-mat-o-crit
erythrocytes are also known as red blood cells
what is the function of hemoglobin? to carry oxygen and carbon dioxide
what do we call hemoglobin that carries oxygen? oxyhemoglobin
what do we call hemoglobin that is NOT carrying oxygen? deoxyhemoglobin
oftentimes, because the deoxyhemoglobin is now carrying carbon dioxide, we refer to it as carboxyhemoglobin
a condition of a low red blood cell count is referred to as anemia
a pigment formed by the breakdown of RBC's in the liver is called bilirubin (billy-ruben)
jaundice is a condition in which the skin appears yellow from a build up of bilirubin (billy-ruben)in the blood
which hormone is responsible for regulating the production of RBC's in the blood? erythopoietin
white blood cells are divided into 2 groups: granulocytes and agranulocytes
granulocytes include neutrophils eosinophils basophils
agranulocytes include monocytes lymphocytes
neutrophils account for 55% of all WBC's and they are important for destroying bacteria, viruses, and toxins in the blood
Eosinophils account for about 3% of all WBC's and are important help control inflammation and allergic reactions
Basophils account for less than 1% of all WBC's and they function to release substances such as histamine, which promotes inflammation, and heparin which is an anticoagulant
Monocytes account for 8% of WBC's and they are also important for destroying bacteria, viruses, and toxins in the blood
lymphocytes account for about 33% of all wbc's and are function to provide immunity for thebody
Leukocytosis refers to a WBC that is above normal
Leukopenia refers to a WBC that is below normal
fragments of cytoplasm in the blood that are crucial for clot formation, also called thrombocytes platelets
fibrinogen is important for the formation of clots
this terms refers to the control of bleeding hemostasis
the formation of a blood clot is called coagulation
a blood clot that forms on the side of a blood vessel with no known injury is known as a thrombus
a portion of a thrombus that breaks off and begins to move within the blood stream is called an embolus
if an embolus blocks a small artery in the lung it is known as pulmonary embolism
if an embolus blocks a cerebral artery it is known as CVA, cerebraovascular accident, or stroke
the term atherosclerosis refers to hardening of the fatty plaque deposits within the arteries AKA coronary artery disease (CAD)
the term aneurysm is defined as a ballooned, weakened arterial wall
an abnormal heart rhythm in which the heart beats too quickly is known as tachycardia
an abnormal heart rhythm in which the heart beats too slowly is known as bradycardia
carditis is defined as an inflammation of the heart
a slow developing condition in which the heart weakens over time, causing the heart to be unable to pump enough blood to keep up with the bodies needs is called congestive heart failure
hypertension is commonly called "high blood pressure" and refers to a consistent resting blood pressure of 140/90 or higher
a condition characterized by a damaged heart muscle due to lack of blood supply to the muscle is known as a myocardial infarction
a condition in which abnormal hemoglobin causes RBC's to change to a crescent shape is known as sickle cell anemia
the nervous system is divided into 2 major parts CNS central nervous system PNS peripheral nervous system
the CNS consists of the brain and spinal cord
the PNS consists of peripheral nerves
the PNS can further be broken down into 2 sections SNS somatic nervous system ANS autonomic nervous system
which of 2, SNS or ANS, is in charge of the body's skeletal or voluntary muscles? the SNS
which of 2, SNS or ANS, is in charge of the body's automatic functions such as respiration and gastrointestinal functions ANS
the functional cells of the nervous system are called neurons
neurons transmit electrochemical messages called nerve impulses
neuron cell membranes have a cell "membrane potential" which means the membrane is polarized
in most cells of the body, the outside charge is ____and the inside charge is ____ positive negative
as long as a neuron is at rest, it will remain in it's ______ state polarized
a neuron will respond to a stimuli such as heat, pressure, and chemicals by changing the amount of polarization across it's membrane by making the outside of it's membrane less positive. this is called depolarization
if the membrane of an axon becomes depolarized enough, "action potential" is created. this "action potential" is the flow of electric current along the axon membrane
there are 3 different types of neurons to carry out the functions of the nervous system. they are: afferent (sensory) efferent (motor) interpretive interneurons
the afferent (sensory) nerves function to detect sensation or other stimuli from the body and bring it to the CNS for interpretation
the efferent (motor) nerves function to produce movement or bodily function at the direction of the CNS
the interpretive interneurons function as interpreters between the afferent and efferent nerves
extending from the nerve cell body, are nerve fibers. what are the 2 types of nerve fibers? axons and dendrites
dendrites are usually short and branch profusely near the cell body. they function to receive information for the cell body
axons are typically long and branch profusely after they have extended far away from the cell. they function to carry information away from the cell body to the dendrite of the next neuron
the function of a nerve impulse is to send information from either the ____ to the ___ or vice versa CNS to PNS
a synapse is a space between the axon of one neuron and the dendrite of the next neuron
at the end of each axon, is a synaptic knob. the synaptic knob contains vesicles that produce neurotransmitters
neurotransmitters are released by the synaptic knob to allow impulse transmission to the next neuron
the blood brain barrier is layer of tightly woven capillaries that protects the delicate tissues of the CNS. this barrier prevents waste products and drugs from doing what? entering the brain tissue
the meninges are a triple-layered membrane protecting the brain and spinal cord. what are the 3 layers? outer dura mater middle arachnoid inner pia mater
what is the space where the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulates? subarachnoid space
CSF is located within the subarachnoid space of the brain and within the central canal of the spinal cord. what is the function of the CSF? cushion the brain and spinal cord
the spinal cord is continuous of the brain, and consists of how many spinal segments? 31
the basic function of the spinal cord is to carry sensory information from the body to the brain, and motor information form the brain to the muscles and glands of the body
a predictable automatic response to a stimulus is called a reflex
the cerebrum is the largest part of the brain, and is divided into how many hemispheres? 2
the 2 hemispheres of the brain are further divided into 4 lobes. what are they? frontal parietal temporal occipital
the thalamus and hypothalamus are contained within the diancephalon
the brain stem consists of 3 parts. what are they? the midbrain the pons the medulla oblongata
how many cranial nerves are there? 12
the somatic nervous system (SNS) connects the CNS to the skin and skeletal muscle (voluntary function)
the autonomic nervous system (ANS) connects the CNS to the internal organs (involuntary function)
the autonomic nervous system (ANS) is further divided into 2 other systems, what are they? the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems
the sympathetic system is in control of what types of situations? fight or flight, stressful situations
the parasympathetic system is in control of what types of situation? resting, normal, everyday situations
each spinal nerve innervates with a skin segment called a dermatome
spinal nerves have 2 roots, a dorsal and a ventral root. the ventral root contains axons of motor or sensory neurons? motor
spinal nerves have 2 roots, a dorsal and a ventral root. the dorsal root contains axons of motor or sensory neurons? sensory



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