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Anat 1 Respiratory

Respiratory System

QuestionAnswer
Gas exchange surfaces make up the... respiratory zone
The tubes of the system make up the... conducting zone
What type of membrane lines the system? mucous membrane
What organ is shared with another system? pharynx (oropharynx) with digestive
Functions of the respiratory system? gas exchange, warm/humidify air, aids in smell, sound production, aids in protection from microbes
What structures create the boundary of the nasal cavity? floor= hard palate: palatine process of maxillae and horizontal plate of palatine bone roof= cribriform plate, ethmoid walls= ethmoid w/ superior, middle, inferior nasal concha
What structures passes through cribriform plate into nasal cavity? Olfactory neuron fibers
What type of ET is found in system? Fxn? pseudostratified columnar ET w/ cilia and goblet cells. Goblet cells secrete mucus, which traps dust/debris/microbes, cilia move the mucus to be spit out or swallowed
Function of nasal concha? Swirls air in nasal cavity, remains there longer. Warms and humidifies air.
The parts of the pharynx nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharyn
Nasopharynx (location, ET, etc.) Most superior part of pharynx; above uvula. Lined with pseudostratified ET, contains opening for auditory tube and pharyngeal tonsils
Oropharynx (location, ET, etc.) Middle part of pharynx; between uvula and epiglottis. Lined with stratified squamous ET, contains lingual and palatine tonsils
Laryngopharynx (location, ET, etc.) Most inferior part of pharynx; between epiglottis and trachea. Lined with stratified squamous ET, walls are made of skeletal muscle, contract as part of swallowing reflex
Cartilages of the larynx thyroid, cricoid, epiglottis, arytenoid, corniculate, cuneiform
Thyroid cartilage -single fused plate -HYALINE cartilage -forms anterior wall of larynx and is the anterior anchor of vocal cord and epiglottis -connected to hyoid bone -forms laryngeal prominence (Adam's apple)
Cricoid cartilage -single ring-shaped -HYALINE cartilage -sits over trachea
Epiglottis - single, leaf-shaped - ELASTIC cartilage - anchored to thyroid cartilage -during swallowing, larynx rises and epiglottis tips to cover glottis
arytenoid -paired -HYALINE cartilage -anchor vocal cords -moved by intrinsic laryngeal muscles to alter sounds
corniculate -small, paired -ELASTIC cartilage -sits on tips of arytenoids
cuneiform -small, paired -ELASTIC cartilage -reinforces soft tissue in lateral wall of larynx
Larynx -the voice box -contains vocal cords, directs food to esophagus -made of rings of cartilage
Vocal cord -paired ligaments covered with mucosa -anchored between arytenoid and thyroid cartilages -vibrate when air passes through the opening between them
rima glottidis openings between vocal cords
glottis rima glottidis and vocal cords
vestibular folds -false vocal cords -mucosal folds above vocal cords -don't produce sound, but enhance high frequency sounds
Trachea (serves, cartilage/smooth muscle, ET) -anterior to esophagus, below larynx, bifurcates -mucosa w/ pseudostratified ET, submucosa with seromucous glands -HYALINE cartilage, c-shaped rings -trachealis muscle: posterior part of tracheal tube, allows expansion of esophagus during swallowing
Types of bronchi primary, secondary, tertiary
Primary bronchi bring air to lungs, have cartilage rings
secondary bronchi -serve lobes of lungs (3 in right, 2 in left) -have cartilage plates -
tertiary bronchi -bring air to the bronchiopulmonary segments -10 per lung -have cartilage plates -have cartilage pads
what do bronchioles serve? lung lobules
bronchioles -no cartilage -smooth muscle in wall, innervated by ANS -simple columnar --> simple cuboidal
last part of conducting zone... terminal bronciole
respiratory bronchioles send air to alveolar ducts, have alveoli on their walls, in respiratory zone
types of bronchioles respiratory and terminal
how many lung lobes? Five. Right has 3, left has 2
Hilus of lung -on medial surface -where pulmonary vessels and primary bronchi enter lung
functional unit of the lung alveolus
alveolus -microscopic gas exchange chamber -surrounded by elastic fibers, hep with recoil of lungs during expiration
where do respiratory bronchioles lead? alveolar ducts
where do alveolar ducts lead? alveolar sacs (terminal clusters of alveoli)
types of alveolar cells type I and type II
type I alveolar cell -simple squamous ET -make up wall of alveoli -allow gas exchange, passive diffusion
type II alveolar cell -specialized cell that produces surfactant (prevents sticking of alveolar walls)
resident macrophage of respiratory system alveolar macrophage. Removes microscopic debri from air
respiratory membrane alveolar and capillary walls and fused basal lamina= pathway for gas exchange
Created by: amandadalby615