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7-26 abdominal 2

What happens if you lay down after you eat? Food won't peristalse down becasue it doesn't have skeletal muscle
Explain the steps to get a esophageal hernia Weakness in diaphragm, increased abdominal pressure, esophagus or stomach herniates
Explain referred pain Inflammation irritates spinal nerves so other organs are irritated
Where would referred pain from the diaphgram and liver? Right shoulder
Where would referred pain from the liver and kidney be? Lower back
What quadrant is the spleen found in? Upper left
What are the developmental functions and other functions of the spleen? Hematopoietic center during development; breaks down and recylces damaged RBCs to make more hemoglobin; blood reservoir; some immune abilities
What organ is usually removed instead of repaired? Spleen
What organs is the spleen anterior and deep to? Deep to stomach; anterior to kidney
What is the red and white pulp of the spleen? Where blood goes through
What type of organ is the pancreas? Endocrine and exocrine
What does the endocrine portion of the pancreas do? Secretes contents (insulin and glucagon) directly into the blood stream
What does the exocrine portion of the pancreas do? Secretes pancreatic juices through ducts
What is the head of the pancreas anchored by? Duodenum
What does the pancreatic duct join with to form the hepato-pancreatic ampulla? Bile duct
Where does the ampulla empty into and through what lip? Duodenum; papilla
What are the pancreatic islets? Cells in the pancreas that secrete insulin and glucagon (endocrine portion)
Where are the pancreatic juices secreted and what stimulates the secretion? Secreted into duodenum; stimulated by acidity of food
Explain pancreatic cancer Pancreatic juices get blocked because of duct problem; pancreas breaks down and digests aorta and SMA
What are the branches of the gastroduodenal artery that supply the pancreas? Posterior superior and anterior superior pancreaticoduodnal arteries
What are the branches of the superior mesenteric artery that supply the pancreas? Posterior inferior and anterior inferior pancreaticoduodenal arteries
What does the inferior mesenteric vein drain and where does it drain into? Left half of large intestine and drains into splenic
What does the superior mesenteric vein drain? Small intestine and right half of large intestine
What is the largest gland in the body? Liver
What does the liver absorb? Everything but fats; all other nutrients
What are the four lobs of the liver? Right, left, caudate, quadrate
What quadrant is the liver in? Upper right
What are the two regions the liver is mostly in and the other two it can be in? Right hypochondriac region and epigastric region; can be in right flank region and left hypochondriac region
What muscle is the liver attached to? Diaphragm
What ligament divides the liver into right and left lobs? Falciform ligament
What is the liver covered by? Visceral peritoneum
What does the falciform ligament anchor the liver to? Anterior abdominal wall
Where is the round ligament of the liver found? Inferior aspect of the liver
What is found in the round ligament of the liver? Umbilical veins
What areas of the liver don't have visceral pertioneum? What do these areas have direct contact with? Coronary ligament, left triangular ligament, upper part of the right lobe; diaphragm
Where do the hepatic veins drain to? IVC
What are the two functional lobes of the liver? Right and left (caudate and quadrate here)
What happens during liver cirrhosis? Toxins are ingested and liver can't break them down so hepatocytes are damaged and causes backup
What is the ligamentum venosum? Open duct to in fetal development to go to IVC
What does the umbilical vein drain into? Ligamentum venosum
What does the hepatic portal vein drain? All venous blood from digestive organs
What kind of blood does the hepatic portal vein have? Deoxygenated but nutrient rich
What does the gallbladder do? Stores and concentrates bile
What is the cystic artery a branch of? Right hepatic artery
What are the steps for bile drainage Liver creates bile, secretes bile through hepatic ducts (R/L and common), hepatic ducts join with cystic duct, forms bile duct, joins with pancreatic duct, empties into major duodenal papilla into duodenum
What do hepatocytes produce and where does it drain into? Produces bile; drains to biliary system
What is at each corner of a hepatocyte? Triad- bile duct, hepatic portal vein, hepatic artery
In hepatocytes, which directions do blood, bile, and lymph flow? Blood goes inward, bile and lymph go outward
What cells clean up debris? Cooper cells
What is the portal flow? Blood comes into hepatic portal vein, goes through hepatocytes (filter nutrients and toxins), central vein- clean blood, IVC
What do kidneys produce? urine
What do the kidneys remove, reabsorb, and excrete? Remove excess water, reabsorb salt, excrete waste
What structure does urine travel in from the kidney to the urinary bladder? Ureter
What secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine? Suprarenal glands
What kidney is lower and why? Right; liver is in the way
What renal vein is longer and why? Left; has to go over the aorta
What renal vein is longer? Right
What are kidneys surrounded in that blends in with the suprarenal glands? Perirenal fat pad
What are the right and left testicular arteries a branch of? Aorta
What does the right testicular vein drain into? IVC
What does the left testicular vein drain into? Renal vein
Are the renal arteries or veins anterior? Veins
What part of the kidneys is an extension of the cortex into the kidney? Renal columns
Where are nephrons at/where is urine produce? Renal pyramids
Created by: beranml