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7-23 ANS

What are the two components of the nervous system? Neurons and neuroglia
What are the two anatomical divisions of ther nervous system? CNS and PNS
What makes up the CNS? Brain and spinal cord
What makes up the PNS? Anything that comes off the CNS- 31 pairs of spinal nerves and 12 pairs of cranial nerves
What are the two functional divisions of the nervous system? Somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system
What does the somatic nervous system control? Primarily voluntary activities
What does the autonomic nervous system control? Primarily involuntary activities
What are the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system? Parasympathetic and sympathetic
What is the structural and functional unit of the nervous system? Neurons
What are neurons responsible for? Reception, integration, transformation, and transmission of information
What are the components of a neuron? Cell body, dendrites, and axons
Where are the cell bodies located? Gray matter of CNS
What are collections of cell bodies in the PNS? Ganglia
What are collections of cell bodies in the CNS? Nuclei
What do dendrites carry? Impulses towards the cell body
What do axons carry? Impulses away from the cell body
What are the three classifications of neurons? Unipolar, bipolar, multipolar
How many processes does a unipolar neuron have and what do they divide into and function as? 1 process that branches into a central branch (axon) and peripheral branch (dendrite)
What are examples of unipolar neurons? Sensory neruons in PNS (dorsal root ganglion), spinal,and cranial nerve ganglia
How many processes do bipolar neurons have? 2- 1 axon and 1 dendrite
What are examples of bipolar neurons? Sensory; olfactory epithelium, retina, inner ear
How many dendrites and axons do multipolar neurons have? Several dendrites and 1 axon
Where are mulitpolar neurons most commonly found? CNS
What are examples of the multipolar neurons? Motor cells in anterior/lateral horns of spinal cord and autonomic ganglion cells
What are the components of neuroglia? Astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia, Schwann cells, satellite cells, myelin
What do astrocytes do? Form barriers--Blood brain barrier
What do oligodendrocytes do? Play a role in myelin formation in the CNS
What do microglia do? Phagocytize neuronal waste products
What do Schwann cells do? Play a role in myelin formation in the PNS
Where are satellite cells found? PNS, but form protective barriers
What is myelin? Forms sheathes around axons; help speed conduction of impulses
What do general somatic afferents transmit? Pain, temperature, touch, and proprioception from body to CNS
What do general somatic efferents carry? Motor impulses to skeletal muscles
What do general visceral afferents carry? Sensory impulses from viscera to the CNS (stretching, irritation of organs)
What do general visceral efferents transmit? Motor impulses to the smooth musce, cardiac muscles, glandular tissue
What do special somatic afferents do? Special sensory impulses of vision, hearing, and equilibrium to CNS
What do special visceral afferents transmit? Smell and taste sensations to CNS
What do special visceral efferents do? Conduct motor impulses to muscles of the head and neck
Where do special visceral efferents come from? Arise from branchiomeric formed structures
What are examples of special visceral efferents? Muscles of mastication, facial expression, pharynx, and larynx
What are the divisions of the autonomic nervous system? Sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric
What are the two neurons of the autonomic nervous system? Preganglionic (presynaptic) fibers and postganglionic (postsynaptic) fibers
Where are the preganglionic nerve cell bodies located in the sympathetic nervous system? Lateral horn of the thoracic and upper lumbar spinal cord
Where are the lateral horns found? T1 to L2/L3
Where do preganglionic fibers pass through? Ventral roots, spinal nerves, and white rami communicantes
Where do postganglionic fibers travel from? Ganglia to their destination
What do postganglionic fibers supply? Skin with secretory fibers to sweat glands, motor fibers to arrector pili muscles, vasomotor to blood vessels
Where do preganglionic nerve cell bodies arise from? Brainstem (CN 3, 7, 9, 10) and sacralpart of spinal cord (S2-S4)
What fibers are short and long in the parasympathetic nervous system? Long preganglionic and short postganglionic
What nerve takes over after the left colic flexure? Sacral nerves
What does the enteric nervous system consist of? Enteric ganglia and plexus of GI
What two plexuses are responsible for control of motility and secretions of the GI tract? Myenteric plexus (peristaltic movements) and submucosal plexus (secretions of glands within organs)
What do interneurons connect/ One nerve to another
Created by: beranml



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