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Nervous Histology

16.2--Histology of Nervous Tissue

TermDefinition
Neurons Electrical excitability -- ability to respond to stimulus and convert it to nerve impulse
Nerve Impulse Action Potential propagates along surface of neuron due to movement of ions between neuron and interstrital fluuid
Cell Body Nucleus + cytoplasm. Typical organelles + Nissl Bodies
Nissl Bodies Clusters of RER, important for protein synth and repair, transmission of nerve impulses and reception
Neurofibrils Intermediate filament bundles; support cell shape
Microtubules Movement of materials between cell body and axon
Lipofuscin Pigment, yellow brownish granules
Somatic Gemmules (Spines) Bumps on plasma membrane; increase surface area for nerve cell interactions
Initial segment Part of axon closest to hillock; location of nerve impulse arisal -- trigger zone (free of Nissl Bodies).
Axon Collaterals Side branches
Axon Terminal Arborizations Division of axon into terminal branches
Axosomatic Axon end to Somatic cell body
Axoaxonic Pre axon end to post axon
Electrical Synapse Gap junctions via connexins; rapid, uniform, coordinated movement (ex. heart, stomach)
Multipolar Neurons Multiple Dendrites, one axon
Bipolar Neuron One dendrite, one axon
Unipolar Sensory; Split into peripheral process and central process. Cell body branches off between axon and dentrite.
Neuroglia Constitute about 1/2 volume of CNS. Don't carry nerve impulse, Have ability to divide
CNS--Astrocyte Protoplasmic (short branches) in gray matter; fibrous (long unbranched) in white matter. Support neurons via microfilaments, create blood brain barrier, secrete growth chemicals in embryo, maintain chemicals of nerve impulse, learning and memory
CNS--Oligodendrocytes Smaller astrocytes. Form and maintain protective covering around CNS axons
Pia Matter Thin membrane around brain and spinal cord.
CNS--Microglia Slender processes with spinelike projections. Originate in red bone marrow and migrate. Phagocytes. Remove cellular debris, microbes, and damaged tissue
CNS--Ependymal Cells Cuboidal to columnar cells -- single layer. Line ventricles of brain and central canal of spinal cord. Assist and circulate cerebrospinal fluid.
PNS--Schwann Cells Flat cells--encircle axons. Form myelin sheath. 1:1 ratio of cell to axon portion.
PNS--Satellite Cells Surround cell bodies of neurons of PNS ganglia. Structural support + exchange of materials between neuronal cell bodies and interstitial fluid.
White Matter Aggregations of myelinated and unmyelinated axons of many neurons.
Gray Matter Neuronal cell bodies, dendrites, unmyelinated axons, axon terminals, and neuroglia.
Nucleus (CNS) Cluster of nerve cell bodies ~to Ganglion in PNS
Tract (CNS) Cluster of axons and nerve fibers; connect spinal cord up and down the brain
2 Reasons of Lack of Neurogeneration inhibitory influence from neuroglia (oligodendrocytes--myelin); absence of growth stimulating cues
Created by: 100000434525601