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FTCE K-6 Sci&Tech

FTCE SAE Elementary Education Science & Technology

what scientific device would be used to map the ocean floor sonar
what scientific device would be used to measure the intensity of an earthquake seismometer
if a test tube was not available, and you needed to measure 20mL of a liquid, what would be appropriate to use? graduated cylinder
Out of these choices, which is in plant cells but not animal cells? chloroplast, mitochondrion, cytoplasm, nucleus chloroplast
A strawberry appears to be red because? the color red is REFLECTED by the skin of the strawberry
which of the following is an example of a mixture? (sand, nitrogen, sugar, water) sand
which of the following is an example of an element? (sand, nitrogen, sugar, water) nitrogen
Sugar is an example of a compound
what part of an atom has a neutral charge? neutron
what part of an atom is not located in the nucleus? electron
how many degree differentiate Fahrenheit and Celsius? 32 degrees
Order the planets from closest to farthest from the sun Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
why did we use to have nine planets and now only have eight? Pluto was the ninth plants, and was considered to be the smallest at the time. It is now considered to be one of Neptune's moons
what is Saturn known for? its rings
which planet is the largest Jupiter
what part of the atom has a positive charge? proton
how many protons versus electrons versus neutrons are there? there are the same number of protons and electrons. the number of neutrons are given by the mass number
what species of animal is warm blooded, and gives live births? mammals
What are the 3 states of matter? Solid, liquid, gas
Volume: the amount of space matter takes up. You can find the volume of an object by seeing how much water it displaces.
Weight: The force of gravity on an object. Not to be interchanged with mass.
Physical changes: do not alter the molecular structure but do alter the physical appearance of the matter.
Chemical changes: alter the molecular structure of matter
Density: the ratio of mass to volume.
Chemical reaction: 2 or more compounds can combine or break down to form new compounds with new molecular structures.
Element: made of one type of atom. Each element is represented by one or two letter and a number. Each element has an atomic number which is the number of protons in the atom.
Compound: made of several types of atoms chemically combined in specific proportion
Mixture: made of several types of molecules but not chemically combined.
Molecule: the smallest particle of a substance that retains properties of the substance and can exist independently.
Atoms: invisible, basic building block of matter made up of protons, neutrons, and electrons.
Protons and Neutrons are in the Nucleus. Protons have a positive charge.Neutron have neutral charge.
Electrons are in the outer portion of the atom. They have a negative charge.
Heat: the energy of a moving molecule
Energy: the ability of matter to move other matter or produce a chemical change
3 Types of Energy Heat energy- electrical energy, Mechanical energy- wave energy, Chemical energy- nuclear energy
Celsius scale: 0 degrees is freezing and 100 degrees is boiling.
Fahrenheit scale: 32 degrees is freezing and 212 degrees is boiling
Temperature: the measure of how hot or cold a body is in relation to a standard.
Force: a push or pull
Two types of force and examples 1) contact- machines(mechanical), 2) distance (magnetic force)
Electrostatic Force: the power resulting from electricity as an attractive or repulsive interaction between two charged objects. Positive and negative oppositely charged objects will attract each other. Like charges will repel each other.
Gravitational force: the attraction or pull of objects in the universe toward one another such as the moon, the sun, and Earth.
Magnetic Force: the materials that will attract materials made of iron, steel, cobalt, or nickel. The magnet is strongest at the ends or poles.
Friction- surfaces that touch have resistance to motion. Produces Static Electricity
Two types of friction and what they do? static- objects touch...no move, kinetic- objects touch and move
What is the direction of friction force? Opposite of the direction of motion.
Static Electricity: Rubbing materials together cause the transfer of electrons from one material to another. (make item more negatively charged)
• Centripetal force is a force that makes a body follow a curved path.
• Inertia is the resistance for an object to change its state of motion.
• Unbalanced Force: always causes a change in motion. The object with the greatest force will cause the other object to move.
• Balanced Force: does not cause movement because two objects are balanced.
• Centrifugal force represents the effects of inertia that arise in connection with rotation and which are experienced as an outward force away from the center of rotation.
List the money forms of energy heat, light, sound
Is energy potential or kinetic? both
potential energy- stored energy
kinetic energy- energy of motion
How does sound occur? An object vibrates rapidly
How do sound vibrations travel? in waves
How does sound occur in humans? 1) sound wave reaches ear 2) ear carries sound to auditory nerve 3) auditory nerve carries sound to brain
Pitch is the high or low tone to the sound.
Quality is the vibration of parts or as a whole that affects sound quality.
Intensity is the loudness or softness of the sound.
What produces an electrical current? the flow of electrons
Series circuit is made of a single path through which all electric currents must flow.
• Conductors- allow the flow of electrons
• Insulators- do not allow the flow of electrons
Geology: study of the composition and structure of the Earth
What are the Three layers of Earth crust? describe them. Crust- outerlayer composed of bedrock, 1)Mantle- semi-molten layer between the crust and the core, 2)Core- solid iron and nickel 3)middle part of the Earth
Faults: cracks in the crust and are the results of movements in the plates.
Seismograph measures earthquakes using the Richter scale
Earthquakes occur when plate slide past each other quickly.
Volcanoes are mountains that form when two pieces of crust move away from each other and allow molten rock to rise up.
Magma is molten rock under the crust of the earth.
Lava magma on the earth’s surface coming up and out of the volcano it cools and hardens on the Earth’s surface or forms rivers of hot lava.
Continental drift- the movement and change in position of the continents over the Earth’s surface
Seafloor spreading- creation of new ocean floor crust at mid-ocean ridges and movement of the crust away from the mid-ocean ridges.
Fossils: preserved remnants or marks (such as footprints) made by animals and plants that were once alive.
Plate tectonics- a theory explaining the movement of the plates that form the earth’s crust. At the edge of the plates there are things like volcanoes, earthquakes, and mountain building.
How do fossils form? sediment covers animals or marks and hardens into rocks
Rocks: naturally occurring solids found on or below Earth’s surface.Can be just one element or compounds.
Metamorphic Rocks: rocks that have morphed into other kinds of rocks because of extreme heat and pressure. Marble is a metamorphic rock.
Igneous Rock: these are fire rocks or cooled magma. They are formed above or below ground. Melted rock, magma, become trapped in pockets and then cools forming igneous rock. When magma rises to the Earth’s surface, it is called lava. Granite is an igneous rock.
Sedimentary Rock: the form due to water or wind affecting pieces of earth. These bits of earth become rocks over thousands and millions of years. Limestone is a sedimentary rock.
Erosion is the wearing away of the earth and rocks by wind, running water, and glaciers.
Water cycle: Precipitation, evaporation, condensation,transpiration
Sublimination- water transfers from solid to gas
Evaporation- water becomes vapor and occurs more in warmer weather and when large bodies of water are present
Precipitation- water that falls to the earth in the form of rain, snow and sleet.
Air mass: a huge body of air that covers the earth’s surface forming when there is a difference in temperature and humidity in that part of atmosphere.
Sea Breezes occur because land heats faster than water. Cool ocean breezes moving towards land usually begin mid-morning and end at sunset.
Air masses moving towards and away from earth are called? wind currents.
Front- when two air masses meet the boundary between them is called a front and usually has stormy weather.
Monsoons: huge wind systems that are seasonal.
Jet Stream: winds of high speed that travel in belts around the earth.
Dew Point- the air temperature when water vapor begins to condense.
Hurricanes: storms form over oceans with warm, moist air and forms a storm system with an “eye” a longer lasting storm that is slow moving with high winds.
Tornadoes are short-lived storms that are formed by winds over land.
What are thunderstorms made up of? dark cumulus clouds with thunder and lightning.
Soil: a mixture of water, air, minerals, and organic materials.
describe the 3 components that make up soil. 1)Sand- 2)Silt- 3) Clay- smallest
Aquifer- underground layer of water-bearing, porous rock. This layer of porous rock holds liquids like water, gas, or oil.
Sinkhole- when the upper layer of earth collapses into a hole beneath.
Reservoir- container that holds liquids or the collection of water by artificial means such as a beaver’s dam or man-made lake.
Leaching- Liquids move through the porous rock leaving minerals behind.
Map scales- represent distances by ratio
Legends- offer additional information about the map in the form of symbols and what they represent.
Geological map- provide information about the earth
Topographical map- provide information about altitudes of land forms
Compass Rose- give the cardinal directions of N,S, E, W.
Latitude- measured by parallels and is the distance from the Equator.
Longitude- measured by meridians- distance east and west of the Prime Meridian.
Parallels- lines that run east to west on a map.
Prime Meridian- the meridian line that has a measurement of 0% E-W.
Meridian- imaginary lines on maps showing quad. of the earth that run from n. pole to s. pole, 360 of them in 1% increments.
What element is the sun made up of? hydrogen
The eight planets plus one dwarf mercury, venus, earth, mars, jupiter, saturn, uranus, neptune and PLUTO
What are the inner planets composed of (Mercury-Mars) rocky and metallic minerals
What are the outer planets made up of? gasses
AU-Astronomical Unit- is used to express distance from the sun. 1 AU is the distance from the Earth to the sun.
Meteoroid- composed of particles of rock and metal.As it travels through the earth’s atmosphere its surface heats up and begins to burn. This is what we see as a shooting star.
Hubble telescope- optical telescope that orbits around the earth.
Comet- mass of frozen gas and rocky particles. Comets have a nucleus and tail.
What was Sputnik and when was it launched? Russian rocket. Oct. 4, 1957
What was the significance of Sputnik? Created great Space Race. Gov. funded more math and science in the schools.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration(NASA)- established by Congress in 1958 to coordinate space research.
When and on what mission did we land on the moon? Apollo 2 July 20, 1969 Who walked on the moon?
How often does the moon orbit the earth? every 27 days.
What causes tides? gravitational pull of the moon.
What causes seasons on Earth? tilt of the Earth and revolution around the sun.
Does the Earth change distance from the sun? No, Earth is always the same distance from the sun.
What are cells? basic structural unit of living things.
All living organisms are ____ based? carbon
Microorganisms. include all living things that are too small to be seen by the naked human eye. Like fungi, bacteria, archaea, and protists
Fungi reproduce via spores and include yeasts and mold.
Protozoan- one-celled organism that can live inside or outside a cell.
What is the only way to protect against a virus? through vaccines.
Virus- genetic molecules encased in a protein shell called capsid. Host cell are required for virus to reproduce. Antibiotics are ineffective against viruses.
Nucleus: Hold DNA and directs cell activity
Mitochondrion: takes energy from glucose in cells to use for cellular activity
Cytoplasm: jelly like substance within a cell but not in the nucleus
Chloroplast: contains chlorophyll used by green plants to make food.
Bacteria organism that has adapted to every habitat. Some are helpful and some are harmful to humans most have no effect.
Graduated cylinder- used for precise measurements
Spectroscope- used to separate visible light into its component colors
Telescope -used to see objects very far away and magnify them
Microscope- used to magnify microscopic organisms
Cell Membrane: controls movement of materials in and out of cell.
Ribosome: Makes proteins from amino acids
Cell wall: gives a structure to plant cells
describe this phases of plant cell metabolism: Diffusion the movement of chemicals from high areas of concentration to low areas.
Tissue- group of the same kind of cells.
Nervous system- controls muscle function
Tendons- attach muscles to bones
Ligaments- hold bones together
Joint- two bones come together
Human skeleton- consists of over 200 bones
Skeletal system- composed of bones, cartilage, and ligaments
Organ- group of tissues working together
Muscular system- controls muscles and movement of the skeleton and movement within the organs.
Receptors- nerve terminals that relay information back to the brain
Reflexes- involuntary responses from the nervous system
Digestive system- receives and processes foods: Includes mouth, esophagus, stomach, large intestine, small intestine.
Process of digestion? chewing, breaks down foods with saliva.The stomach chemically breaks down the food with gastric and intestinal juices.The smooth muscles push the food down the small intestine which absorbs nutrients.The large intestine which absorb water.
Excretory system- eliminates waste from the body: Includes lungs, kidneys, bladders, large intestine, rectum, and skin.
Circulatory System- internal transport of blood: Includes the heart, blood vessels, lymph vessels, blood and lymph.
Heart- 4 chambered muscle; upper chambers are atria; lower chambers ventricles
Immune system- the way the body protects itself from foreign proteins and microorganisms. The body produces antibodies and lymphocytes to destroy invaders.
Respiratory System- expansion and contraction of lungs
Process of respiratory system? Oxygen enters tiny capillaries in lungs and combines with hemoglobin in red blood cells; then the capillaries carry the red blood cells to the tissues while the lungs exhale the carbon dioxide. Some animals use gills for respiration.
Reproductive System- organs for the reproduction of life; different in males and females.
Two types of reproductive system? sexual (sperm unites with egg), asexual (one parent through fission- splitting of organism)
Nitrogen cycle- the nitrogen in the air remains constant
Pollution- materials that disrupt the ecosystem’s normal functioning.
Acid rain- rain or precipitation that contains high levels of sulfuric and nitric acid that can pollute drinking water, erode building and hurt animal and plant life. Caused by volcanoes, forest fires and gas burning.
Ecosystem- all living and nonliving things in the environment and how they interact.
Energy pyramid shows the relationship of things in an ecosystem and how they rely on one another.
Ecology- study of the relationship between living things.
Nonrenewable resources- resources that can be depleted such as oil
Renewable resources- can endure indefinitely under proper circumstances (vegetation)
Interdependence- reliance of people on the world
Conservation is is using natural areas without disrupting their ecosystems.
Parts of the scientific method? • Posing a Question, • Research/Organize, • Form a Hypothesis/Prediction, • Experiment, • Observe and Record Data, • Draw a Conclusion/ Inference, • Apply Knowledge
What is the scientific method? A process of observation and analysis of observation; helps to develop an understanding of the world.
Data Representation- Usually in graph or chart form, diagrams, tables
Variables- Factors that influence an experiment
What must questions have to be testable? Have specific variables that can be tested.
Inductive: Inductive reasoning, moves from specific observations to broader generalizations and theories. Inquiry or discovery lessons are inductive and promote higher-order thinking and creativity in problem solving.
Inquiry/ discovery - learning by investigation and questioning
Deductive: :works from the more general to the more specific
Germination when a seed begins to grow as it gets enough water
Transpiration the way that water passes out of the leaves and into the air as vapor.
Created by: carolynspencer