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Food Basics 4 (CSCA)

CSCA - Soups & Stocks

AROMATICS Any herb, spice, vegetable or combination used to impart flavor and enhance the quality of the food preparation.
BISQUE Classically a crayfish soup. Today it refers to any shellfish as well as some meat, poultry or vegetable purée soups that are finished with cream.
BOUQUET GARNI Parsley stems, spring of thyme, bay leaf, tied together. Added to stock for flavor.
BROTH A flavored liquid obtained from the simmering of meat and bones and aromatics to be used like a stock as a base or consumed on it's own. The cooking time tends to be shorter and flavor more intense.
COMPOUND SOUP Solid ingredients cooked in a broth or stock. The ingredients are left in and eaten, e.g., Chicken Soup or Minestrone.
CONSOMMÉ A stock that has been clarified using a raft to obtain a translucent liquid. A Double Consomme is a stock that has been fortified with additional meat to create a highly flavorful liquid.
CREAM SOUP One of the 6 categories defined by Escoffier. Based on Bechamel or vegetable purée. Has cream added.
DEGLAZING To release the congealed and caramelized particles from the bottom of the pan by adding liquid and scraping.
FOND BLANC French for "White Stock". A flavorful liquid obtained from the simmering of bones and aromatics.
FOND BRUN French for "Brown Stock" A flavorful liquid obtained from simmering well-caramelized bones and aromatics.
FOND DE CUISINE “Foundation of Food” meaning stock.
FULL TERM SOUP (POT AU FEU) Similar to a compound soup. Provides two courses in one pot. Meat and vegetable.
FUMET A white stock made from the frames of firm, non-oily white fish. It is done in a non-reactive pot and simmered only 35 minutes to prevent the bones from breaking down and create an off taste and cloudy stock.
LIAISON A mixture of 3 yolks to 1 cup cream used to thicken and en-richen. It must be added by tempering and not heated over 180ºF.
PANADA A thick paste or mixture used for binding. Ground bread mixed with a small amount of liquid is most common.
RAFT The primary clarifying agent in making consomme. A mixture of egg whites, egg shells, aromatics and ground meats are mixed together with cold stock or broth. The mixture is brought just to a boil then simmered gently.
STOCK or FOND The flavorful liquid obtained from the simmering of bones and aromatics.
TAMIS A flat drum wire mesh used to remove unwanted particles by forcing the purée through the screen.
TEMPERING Adding a hot liquid into a cool liquid to raise the cool liquid up to temperature. Then add the tempered liquid to the rest. Technique used when adding a liaison.
VELOUTÉ One of the Mother Sauces. It is stock that has been thickened with a roux, simmered to remove the flour taste and strained. It is always skimmed to remove impurities.
Created by: CSCAStudy