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Food Basics 2 (CSCA)

CSCA - Eggs

ACIDIC REDUCTION A combination of an acid and water boiled to reduce its volume and concentrate the acidity and flavor. The acidic reduction will also stretch the point at which an egg will coagulate.
ACIDULATED WATER A small amount of acid such as vinegar, lemon, wine, added to water to prevent foods from discoloring.
BLANCH To partially cook any food. The procedure varies according to the item being blanched and the desired outcome. Boiling liquid is used for green vegetables as cold liquid is used for starchy foods.
CLARIFIED BUTTER – The pure fat obtained when the butter is heated. The whey rises to the surface and the water and casein are on the bottom. Because of the absence of milk solids the clarified butter has a higher smoking point and is usually used to saute.
COAGULATION The point when proteins, which are heated, become firm or stable. Egg based sauces should not be heated over 180ºF.
COMPOUND BUTTER Softened butter with one or more ingredients added to it. It can be used as a sauce, garnish or flavor enhancer.
CROÛTES French for crust, often referring to the outside crust of bread or the crust of cheese.
CROUTON A slice of bread cut into a shape that has been toasted lightly or pan fried in butter. It can serve as a base for food, or in soups and salads.
DUXELLES Classically, finely chopped mushrooms that were squeezed dry and sautéed and caramelized with additional ingredients. Today it is typically a finely chopped mushroom mixture that is sautéed and finished with cream.
EMULSION The suspension within each other of two antagonistic liquids that would not ordinarily mix, water being one, or a water-based solution; the other, an oil or melted fat.
EN CROÛTES Anything wrapped in a pastry and baked.
FLAN Carmel-coated baked custard dish of Spain and Mexico: also known as Crème Caramel.
FRITTATA An Italian omelet in which cooked or blanched ingredients are mixed together with the eggs and cooked. Often times finished in the oven or under a broiler and served flat not folded like a French omelet.
HOLLANDAISE One of the mother sauces classically categorized by Escoffier. An emulsified egg yolk sauce with melted butter (or clarified) and an acidic reduction.
MAYONNAISE An emulsified sauce made of egg yolk, oil, acid, water and additional seasoning such as dry mustard which adds flavor and stability.
MIREPOIX (TRIO) Aromatic vegetable mix of 50% onion, 25% carrot, 25% celery. It is rough chopped or Hache to varying sizes depending on the cooking process.
MOTHER SAUCE In classic French cuisine a basic sauce to which diverse ingredients can be added to obtain variations sauces called small sauces.
NON-REACTIVE Any material that prevents the undesirable flavor and color produced by the chemical reaction between acid and metal. Mon-reactive metal: stainless steel, glass, ceramic-coated, porcelain-coated iron (Le Creuset). Reactive metals: aluminum, copper, iron.
OMELETTE/OMELET Three methods of egg preparation: scrambled omelette, beaten omelette, and shaken omelette. Best results are achieved with: a very high flame, clean pan used for only omelette preparations, minimal fat in the omelette pan and fresh eggs.
POACH Moist heat method of cooking where the product is submerged in liquid that is between 160ºF and 205ºF.
RAMEKIN A small porcelain vessel with straight sides used to bake custards and soufflés.
SALMONELLA ENTERITIDIS A strain of bacteria found in eggs and poultry, though not exclusively. It will die when cooked to 165ºF. SALMONELLOSIS is the disease caused by Salmonella enteritidis.
SHOCK To stop the cooking process by completely submerging the product in an ice bath.
SMALL SAUCE A sauce derived from one of the classical "Mother Sauces" where one or more ingredients have been added.
STIRRED CUSTARD A sweetened egg and milk or cream mixture that is cooked on top of the stove. The mixture is brought to 180ºF while stirring constantly with a wooden spoon.
VINAIGRETTE A temporary W/O emulsion. The classic ratio is 3 parts oil to 1 part acid.
ZABAGLIONE/ZABAYON/SABAYON An Italian whipped custard usually served as a dessert sauce. Classically made with Marsala, the yolks, sugar and wine are whipped over low heat until they are combined. Today different wines are used and additional ingredients are added for flavor.
Created by: CSCAStudy