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Exam I: Lecture 3- Skeletal Muscle

Bone characteristics 1. 2nd hardest natural substance in body 2. Made of sparse popul of cells in hard intracellular substance (matrix) 3. Cells make bone called osteoblasts 4. Ossification: osteoblasts hardening the matrix
Osteoblasts 1. Secrete initially & composed of collagen fibers embedded in gelatin-like group substances -> polysacharrides 2. cells form bone
Ossification 1. osteoblasts hardening matrix 2. Ca & phosphate in form of hydroxyapatite crystals in matrix 3. osteoblasts get traped in spaces -> lacunae
What gives bone hard characteristics Matrix infiltrated with Ca & phosphate in form of hydroxyapatite crystals
Functions of bone 1. support 2. protection 3. leverage 4. storage for minerals 5. blood cell formation (hematopoesis)
_______ prevents HYPERcalcemia, _______ prevents HYPOcalcemia Calcitonin; Parathyroid
Cancellous bone 1. light, spongy, looks like sponge 2. tiny spiricules of bone randomly w/ spaces betw them-> for bone marrow 3. light but strong to reduce wt of bones
Compact bone 1. heavy dense 2. shafts of long bones & outside layer of all bones 3. Haversian systems 4. Canniculi
Canniculi 1. allows osteocytes to contact ea other & exchange nutrients 2. in compact bone
Haversian systems 1. run lengthwise to the bone 2. made of multilayered or laminate cylinder composed of concentric layer of ossified bone matrix 3. Contains blood vessels, lymph vessels, nerves 4. Osteocyte located at jxns betw layers of bone make up ea Haver. system
Outer layer covered by periosteum 1. Fibrous tissue, inner layer contains bone forming cells 2. inner allows bone to incr diameter 3. involved in healing bome fractures
Endosteum 1. lines hollow interior surfaces of bone 2. contains osteoblast
Bone cells 1. Osteoblasts 2. Osteocytes 3. Osteoclasts
Osteocytes once osteoblasts trapped in matrix
Osteoclasts 1. bone remodeling
Blood supply to bone 1. Volkmann's canals 2. Nutrient foramina 3. Bone Cortex
Volkmann's canals 1. vessels passing thru tina channels in bone matrix 2. right angles in haversian & osteocytes 3. bring nutrition to osteocytes
Nutrient foramina 1. large vessels enter large bones 2. carry blood into and out of bone marrow
Bone cortex Nutrient foramen resemble crack-type fracture
Bone formation 1. endochondral/cartilage bone formation 2. bones start as cartilage rods 3. cartilage gradually removed as bone created
Name the 2 plates of cartilage that remain during bone formation Epiphyseal plates or growth plates
List the bone shapes 1. long bones 2. short 3. flat 4. irregular
Long Bones 1. ea has proximal & distal epiphysis, ea made of light cancellous bone covered by compact bone 2. main part diaphysis 3. Epiphyseal fractures -> in young animal, area of weakness
Short bones 1. shaped like small cubes 2. core sponge with thin layer of compact bone
Flat bones 1. cancellous bone consist of 2 thin plates of compact bone spearated by cancellous bone layer 2. skull, scapulae
Irregular bones 1. vertebrae 2. sesamoid bones: present in tendoms, change dxn over surf of joints 3. Patella largest of sesamoid bone
Types of bone marrow Red and Yellow
Red bone marrow 1. hematopoietic tissue 2. majority of bone marrow in yung animals, smaller prot in older 3. in long bones and interior pelvic in adults
Yellow bone marrow 1. primarily adipose CT 2. common in adults
List the common bone features: articular surfaces 1. condyle 2. head 3. join surfaces covered w/ hyaline cartilage (articular cartilage) 4. facet
Condyle 1. large round articular or proximal end of a long bone 2. cylindrical 3. distal end of humerus & occipital bone of skull
Head of bone 1. head at humerus, femur, rib 2. form ball portion -> untied with neck
Facet of bone 1. flat articular surface 2. rocking motion 3. carpal & tarsal bones
Foramen hole in a bone
Fossa 1. depressed or sunken area on surface of bone 2. occupied by muscules or tendons
Axial Skeleton 1. bones of head & trunk 2. bones of limbs 3. appendicular skeleton -> appendages 4. Visceral skel -> viscera or soft organs
Skull 1. Skull bones united by jagged, immovable, fibrous joints -> sutures 2. mandible 3. 11 bones form cranium
Mandible freely moveable synovial joint
Occipital bones 1. single bone forms caudoventral 2. where spinal cord exits skull 3. articulates with 1st cervical vertebrae 4. Foramen magnum-> large hole 5. 1st cervical vertebra, form atlantoccipitial joint
Interparietal bones 1. small bones dorsal midline betw occipitial bone & parital bones 2. a skull bone
Parietal bones 1. dorsolateral walls of cranium 2. large and well developed in dogs, cat 3. skull bone
Temporal bones 1. 2 temporal bones 2. below or ventral to parietal bones 3. contain middle & inner ear structures 4. form lateral walls of CRANIUM 5. TMJs with the mandible 6. External acoustic meatus
What does TMJ stand for Temporomandibular joints
External acoustic meatus 1. body canal leads into middle and inner ear cavities 2. Seen in temporal bones
Frontal bone 1. forms forehead region of SKULL 2. paranasal sinus & frontal sinus (in frontal bone) 3. horned breed cornula process where horn develops
List internal bones of cranium Sphenoid & Ethmoid bone
Sphenoid bone 1. forms ventral part (bottom) of cranium 2. contains central depression of pituitary fossa 3. sphenoidal sinus -> paranasal
Ethmoid bone 1. single bone rostral sphenoid bone 2. Cribiform plate 3. Ethmoidal sinus
Cribiform plate 1. Ethmoid bone 2. branches of olfactory nerve pass from upper portion of nasal cavity to the olfactory bulbs
Bones of ear 1. ossicles 2. malleus (hammer), incam stapes 3. Tympanic mmebranes
Tympanic membranes transmit vibrations to cochlea
List the external bones of face 1. incisive bones 2. nasal bones 3. maxillary bones 4. lacrimal bones 5. zygomatic bones 6. mandible (lower jaw)
Incisive bones 1. external bones of face 2. premaxillary bones 3. house upper incisor teeth (ruminants dental pad instead)
Nasal bones 1. external bones of face 2. bridge of nose 3. face length influences size 4. Dolichocephalic (long faced) 5. Brachycephalic (short faced)
Another word for long faced Dolichocephalic
Macillary bones 1. external bones of face 2. upper jaw, maxillary sainuses 3. hard palate: bony separation betw mouth & nasal cavity
Lacrimal bones 1. external bones of face 2. medial portion of orbit of eye, lacrimal sac
Zygomatic bones 1. external bones of face 2. malar bones, portion of orbit & join temporal 3. zygomatic arches either sie, easily palpable
Mandible 1. external bones of face 2. lower jaw, lower teeth, only moveable skull 3. Mandibular symphysis 4. Mandible shaft 5. Mandible ramus
Name the only movable skull Mandible
Mandibular symphysis mandible are separate bones united by cartilaginous joint
Mandible shaft Horizontal porton houses the teeth
Mandible ramus jaw muscles attach and where articular condyles form
Where do articular condyles form Mandible ramus
Which portion houses the teeth Mandible shaft
List the internal bones of face 1. Palatine bones 2. Pterygoid bone 3. Vomer bone 4. Turbinates
Palatine bones 1. caudal portion of hard palate 2. seps mouth frm nasal cavity 3. internal bones of face
Pterygoid bone 1. support lateral walls of pharynx 2. internal bones of face
Vomer bone 1. midline of skull 2. forms part of nasal septum 3. internal bones of face
Turbinates 1. internal bones of face 2. nasal concve 3. 4 thin scroll like bones 4. internal bones of face
Which internal bone of the face has 4 thin sroll like bones Turbinates
Which internal bone of the face forms part of nasal septum Vomer bone
Which internal bone of the face supports lateral walls of pharynx Pterygoid bone
Which internal bone of the face separates mouth frm nasal cavity Palatine bones
Hyoid bone 1. Hyoid apparatus, high in neck 2. Support base of tongue, pharynx, larynx 3. help swallow
Spinal column 1. vertebral column -> vertebrae extend skull to tip of tail 2. most vertebrae lack indiv names
List vertebrae characteristics 1. Invertebral disk -> cartilaginous shock-absorbers 2. spinal canal -> protects spinal cord 3. dorsal projecting 4. 2 lateral transverse process 5. articular process
Discuss articular process in vertebrae characteristics 1. cranial & caudal ends of vertebral arches 2. form joints betw adjacent vertebrae
Cervical vertebrae 1. neck region, 7 long vertebrae 2. C1= atlas -> wings palpated 3. C2= axis
C2=aixs 1. large bladelike spinous process project dorsally 2. peglike dens fit into caudal en of atlas to help form alantoaxial joint
C1= _____; C2= ________ atlas; axis
Thoracic vertebrae 1. same # of ribs animal has 2. tall spinous process & later articular facts -> form joins with heads of ribs
Lumbar vertebrae 1. massive looking bones of spinal column 2. large, bulky 3. support abdominal wt
Sacral vertebrae 1. fuse to form single solid structure -> sacrum 2. Sacroiliac joint -> joint with pelvis
Coccygeal vertebrae 1. bones of tail 2. humans have coccyx
Ribs 1. flat bones form lateral walls of thorax 2. dorsal end 3. ventral 4. bone and cartilage jxn 5. sternal ribs 6. asternal
Which portion of the ribs has freely moving joints allowing ventilation dorsal end of ribs
Which portion of the ribs is variable made of cartilage (coastal cartilage) Ventral
Which portion of the ribs is costochondral jxn bone and cartilage jxn
Which portion of the ribs is ribs whose cartilage joins with sternum sternal ribs
Which portion of the ribs dosn't join sternum Asternal
Sternum 1. rodlike bones called sternebrae 2. first cranial sternebrae= manubrium 3. last= xiphoid (xiphoid process)
Name first cranial sternebrae manubirum
name last crnial sternebrae xiphoid
Appendicular skeleton aka limbs
What has no direct bony connection with axial Thoracic limbs
List the Thoracic Limbs 1. Scapula 2. Humerus 3. Ulna 4. Radius 5. Carpal bones 6. Metacarpal bones 7. Phalanges
Scapula 1. Thoracic limb 2. most proximal bone of thoracic limb 3. flat, triangular bone 4. spine longitudinal ride 5. socket portion -> glonoid cavity
Humerus 1. Thoracic limb 2. brachium, ball, socket joint 3. head of humers 4. large process at proximal end near head -> tubercles 5. distal articular surfaces -> condyle
Ulna 1. Thoracic limb 2. Antebrachium 3. Olecranon process 4. Trochlear notch 5. Anconeal process
Radius 1. Thoracic limb 2. main weight bearing 3. Styloid process: articulates with carpus
Carpal bones 1. Thoracic limb 2. 2 rows of carpal bones 3. horse = knee
Metacarpal bones 1. Thoracic limb 2. extend distal frm carpal to proximal phalanges 3. Horses have 1, Cows 2, dewclaw in cats/dogs
Phalanges 1. Thoracic limb 2. digit made of 203 bones 3. Horse: 1 ea limb; Cow 4 4. Distal phalanx contains point ungula process surrounded by the claw
How many digits (phalanges) do horses have on each limb? Cattle? Horses: 1 (3 phalanges, 1 sesamoid bone) Cows: 4
Which thoracic limb is main weight bearing Radius
Which thoracic limb is most proximal bone Scapula
Humerus: distal articular surfaces -> condyle 1. medial: trochlea (articules with ulna) 2. lateral: capitulum (articulaes with radius) 3. Olecranon fossa: deep indentation above condyle
Olecranon fossa 1. deep indentation above condyle 2. In Humerus
Greater tubercle 1. Large process at proximal end near head should muscle attach 2. In humerus
Olecranon process 1. forms point of elbow 2. Ulna
Trochlear notch 1. half moon concave articular surface 2. Ulna
Anconeal process 1. primal end of trochlear notch 2. ulna
Metacarpal bones of cattle 1. 2 toes 2. bones III & IV fused into single bone
Horse Metaacarpal bones 1. one digit 2. one large metacarpal bone in ea leg 3. 2 smaller bones = splint bones (no wt supports)
Metcarpal bones in cats/dogs 1. Metacarpal I -> dewclaw
Which thoracic limb conists of brachium, ball, socket joint Humerus
Which thoracic limb consists of antebrachium, trochlear notch Ulna
Which thoracic limb makes up knee in horse carpal bones
Pelvic Limb 1. directly connected to axial skeleton 2. Contains: pelvis, femur, patella, Fabellae, Tibia, Fibul, Tarsal bones, Metatarsal bones, Phalanges
What is directly connected to axial skeleton Pelvic limb
Pelvis 1. 2 halves connected thru cartilaginous joint pelvic symphysis 2. Includes the Ilium, Ischium, Pubis
Ilium 1. part of pelvis 2. most cranial 3. felt palpating dog/cat ea side 4. horse/cattle large medial and lateral processed
Ischium 1. In pelvis 2. caudal most pelvic bone
Pubis 1. In pelvis 2. smallest 3. concave area= acetabulum forms ball & socket jt 4. obdurate foramina-> lighten the pelvis
What in pelvis forms ball & socket joint Pubis
What in pelvis is most caudal pelvic bone Ischium
What n pelvis is most cranial and felt when palpating pets Ilium
Femur 1. part of pelvic limb 2. long bone of thigh 3. great trochanter across frm head 4. stifle jt, distal end, like human knee 5. Non articular knobs (medial & lateral epicondyles)
Patella 1. part of pelvic limb 2. largest sesamoid bone in body
Fabellae 1. part of pelvic limb 2. 2 small sesamoid bones in proximal gastrocnemius (calf muscle) 3. not in cattle/horses
Tibia 1. part of pelvic limb 2. wt bearing of leg 3. forms stifle jt w/ femurs 4. hock w/ tarsus 5. Tibial tuberosity 6. Tibial crest
Fibula 1. part of pelvic limb 2. thin compete bone in dogs/cats 3. non-wt bearing 4. proximal extremity, shaft & distal extremity
Tarsal bones 1. part of pelvic limb 2. animal hock 3. proximal row named, distal #ed 4. Calcaneal tuberosity
Metatarsal bones 1. part of pelvic limb 2. same as metacarpal 3. 4 digits on paw hind leg in dog
Phalanges 1. part of pelvic limb 2. same as thoracic limb
Which part of pelvic limb includes long bone of thigh Femur
Which part of pelvic limb has largest sesamoid bone in body Patella
Which part of pelvic limb is not in cattle/horses & has 2 small sesamoid bones in calf muscle Fabellae
Which part of pelvic limb has weight bearing of leg Tibia
Which part of pelvic limb is hock in animal Tarsal bones
Visceral Skeleton 1. Os cordis 2. Os penis 3. Os rostri
Calcaneal tuberosity 1. in tarsal bones 2. fibular tarsal bone projects upward & back to form point of hock
Tibial tuberosity 1. forward facing triangle 2. other patellar tendon attaches
Tibial crest distally as a ridge
Os rostri 1. bone in swine nose 2. part of visceral skel
Os penis 1. penis dog, beavers, raccoon, walrus 2. part of visceral skel
Os cordis 1. bone in heart of cows 2. part of visceral skel
Joint terminology Arthro, articular
Types of joints 1. Fibrous joints 2. Cartilaginous 3. synovial
Fibrous joints 1. synarthroses (aka immovable)
Cartilaginous joints amphiarthroses (slight rocking movement)
synovial joints diarthroses (freely moveable)
Which type of joint is immovable Fibrous
Which type of joint has slightly rocking movement Cartilaginous
Which type of joint is freely moveable synovial joints
Amphiarthroses 1. slight rocking movement 2. Cartlaginous joints
Synarthroses 1. immovable fibrous joints
Diarthroses 1. freely moveable 2. synovial joints
Synovial joint characteristics 1. articular surfaces on bones, smooth rub together in jt 2. articular cartilage- thin sm layer atop articular surf 3. jt capsule fluid filled 4. Ligaments 5. Meniscus
Synovial membrane 1. lining layer contains synovial fluid for lubrication 2. in joint capsule
Meniscus 1. round condyles where femur sits atop fibia
Synovial joint movement 1. flexion 2. extension 3. abduction 4. rotation 5. circumduction
Types of synovial joints 1. hinge joints 2. gliding joints 3. pivot joints 4. ball and sock joints
Hinge joints 1. ginglymus joints 2. swivels around ea other 3. type of synovial jt
Gliding joints 1. arthrodial joints 2. rocking joints 3. gliding joints 4. type of synovial jt
Pivot joints 1. troichoid jts 2. pivots/rotates around ea other 3. type of synovial jt
Ball and socket joints 1. spheroidal jts 2. most extensive movements 3. flexion, extension, abduction, rotation, circumduction
Which synovial joint swivels around each Hinge joints
Which synovial joint is a rocking joint gliding joints
Which synovial joint pivots/rotates around another Pivot joints
Which synovial joint has most extensive movements ball and socket joints
Created by: NinaP183