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Anatomy & Physiology 1 - test 1

Anatomy The study of structure and the relationship among structures
Physiology The study of how body structures function
Levels of Organization Chemical, Cells, Tissues, Organs, Systems
Palpation, Auscultation, Percussion What are the 3 Non-invasive techniques to assess the body?
Palpation Dr feels body surfaces with the hands. Ex: feel the pulse
Auscultation Dr listens to the body sounds Ex: use of stethoscope
Percussion Dr taps on the body surface and listens to the echo Ex: listening if there is fluid in the lungs
Metabolism, Responsiveness, movement, growth, differentiation, reproduction What are the 6 Basic Life Processes
Metabolism The sum of all chemical processes that occur in the body, including catabolism and anabolism
Catabolism Breaking down
Anabolism Building up, rebuilding
Responsiveness The ability to detect and respond to changes in the external or internal environment
Movement motion of the whole body, individual organs, single cells, or organelles inside the cells
Growth Increase in size and complexity, due to increase # of cells, size or both
Differentiation The change in a cell from an unspecialized state to specialized Ex: stem cell
Reproduction Formation of new cells, growth, repair, or new individual, organism
Homeostasis Condition of equilibrium in the body's internal environment. Ex: body temp isn't always 98.6 it slightly varies with the external environment
Intracellular Fluid Fluid inside body cells
Extracellular Fluid Fluid outside body cells. ECF
Intercellular Fluid this fluid fills the narrow spaces b/w cells of tissues.
Plasma ECF in blood vessels
Nervous & Endocrine System (homeostasis) Homeostasis is regulated by these 2 systems?
Nervous System (homeostasis) this system detects changes and sends nerve impulses (rapid)
Endocrine System (homeostasis) this system regulates by secreting hormones (slow)
Receptor, control, Effector The 3 Feedback system components are?
Feedback Receptor monitors changes in a controlled condition and sends input in the form of nerve impulses or chemical signals to a control center
Feedback Control Center Sets the range of values within which a controlled condition should be maintained, evaluates the input it receives from the receptors, and generates output commands when they are needed
Feedback Effector a body structure that receives output from the control center and produces a response or effect that changes the controlled condition.
Negative Feedback System if a response reverses the original stimulus Ex: Blood pressure increases, signals sent to heart to pump slower, to decrease bp back to normal
Positive Feedback System enhances the original stimulus Ex: Childbirth, contractions start when there's pressure, continues to contract more until baby is out
Disorder any abnormality of function
Disease more specific term for an illness characterized by a recognizable set of signs and symp.
Symptoms Subjective Ex: headache, nausea
Signs Objective Ex: fever, rash
Prone Position body lying face down
Supine Position body lying face up
Anatomical Position standardized method of observing the body. standing straight up, palms out
Cranial Skull; regional name
Thoracic chest; regional name
Brachial arm; regional name
Patellar knee; regional name
cephalic head; regional name
gluteal buttock; regional name
Superior toward the head, upper part
Inferior away from the head, lower part
Anterior nearer to the front of the body
Posterior nearer to the back of the body
Medial nearer to the midline
Lateral farther from the midline
Proximal nearer to the attachment of a limb to the trunk
Distal farther from the attachment of the limb to the trunk
Superficial toward the surface of the body
Cranial Cavity formed by cranial bones and contains brain
Vertebral Cavity formed by vertebral column and contains spinal cord
Thoracic Cavity chest cavity; contains plueral and pericardial cavities and mediatinum
Pleural Cavity enclose the lungs
Pericardial Cavity surrounds the heart
Mediastinum median partition b/w the lungs that extends from sternum to vertebral column. Contains all thoracic cavity except lungs
Ventral Cavity Anterior; subdivided by the diaphragm into an upper thoracic cavity and lower abdominal cavity
Dorsal Body Cavity cranial and vertebral cavities
Viscera of Abdominal Cavity Cavity; stomach, spleen, pancreas, liver, gallbladder, small intestine, large intestine
Viscera of Pelvic Cavity Cavity; bladder, some large intestine, internal female and male reproductive structures
Serous Membrane viscera within the thoracic and abdominal cavities. also walls of the thorax and abdomen
Parietal Layer part of the serous membrane; lines the walls of the cavities
Visceral Layer part of the serous membrane; covers and adheres to the viscera within the cavities
Pleural Membrane Membrane that surrounds the lungs: parietal pleura clings to the surface of the chest wall, visceral pleura clings to the surface of the lungs
Peritoneum the serous membrane of the abdominal cavity
Epigastric Region Region; top part of the abdomen
Umbilical Region Region; middle part of the abdomen
Hypograstic Region Region; lower part of the abdomen
Oxygen, Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen these make up 96% of body weight
O, H, C, N w/ phosphorous and calcium these make up 98.5% of body weight, rest are trace elements
Atoms units of matter
Element a quantity of matter composed of atoms of the same type
Atomic Number the number of protons in the nucleus
Mass Number total number of protons and neutrons
Isotopes same number of protons but different numbers neutrons
Radioactive isotopes these are unstable; nuclei decay
Molecule two or more atoms share electrons
Free Radical electrically charged atom or atoms with an unpaired electron in its outermost shell
Antioxidants substances that inactivate Oxygen-derived free radicals
Valence shell number of electrons in its outermost shell
Octet Rule atoms w/ incomplete outer shells tend to combine w/ each other in chemical rxns to become stable
Ionic Bonds when and atom loses or gains a valence electron, ions formed
Cations positively charged ions that have given up one or more electrons
Anions negatively charged ions that have picked up one or more electrons
Ionic Compounds exist in solids but can disassociate into pos. or neg. ions in solution-electrolyte; dissolves easily
Covalent Bond Strongest, most common; sharing 1,2,3 pairs of their valence electrons, structures of the body
Non-Polar Covalent Bond Bonds that share electrons equally
Polar Covalent Bond Bonds that share electrons unequally
Hydrogen Bonds Weakest bond, help provide 3d shapes; perfect environments for chemical rxns.
Chemical Reaction this occurs when new bonds are formed or old bonds break between atoms
Reactant the starting substances of a chemical rxn
Product the ending substances of a chemical rxn
Energy this is the capacity to do work
Potential Engery is energy stored by matter due to its position
Kinetic Energy is the energy associated with matter in motion
Chemical Engery form of potential energy stored in the bonds of compounds or molecules
Exergonic Reaction (energy transfer in chemical rxn) bond is broken, has more energy than the one formed, energy is released. Ex: metabolism; catabolism of food
Endergonic Reaction (energy transfer in chemical rxn) requires energy; from ATP, to form a bond Ex: bonding amino acids to form proteins
Activation Energy the collision energy needed to break chemical bonds; initial energy to start rxn
Concentration & Temperature two factors that influence Activation Energy
Catalyst Chemical compounds that speed up chemical rxns by lowering the activation energy. -does not alter potential energy -catalyst is unchanged -helps orient the particles
Synthesis, Decomposition, Exchange, Reversible What are the 4 Types of Chemical Reactions?
Created by: ktscards



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