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A&P 1 ch 2 :chemistr

A&P 1 ch 2 :chemistry comes alive outline material

ELEMENTS are Substances that cannot be broken down by a chemical reaction
How many elements are there 1) ___94____ occur in nature. 2) __24____ _ are made in the lab.
B. The human body is made up of ___65___ % Oxygen, ___18.5______ % Carbon, _______ % Hydrogen, ___3.3______% Nitrogen and ___3.5_____% other elements.
C. Essential elements are ___required______ for life. They include: 1) ____O_____ 2) ____C_____ 3) ____H_____4) ___N______ 5) ____Ca_____ 6) ____P_____7) ____K_____8) _____Na___9) ____Mg_____
D. Trace elements are necessary for life in ___minute_____ quantities. They include: 1) _____Iron_____ 2) ___Iodine______
Atoms are particles of __elements_________. They are made up of the following subatomic particles: 1) Neutrons are __neutral_______ in charge and are found in the ____nucleus______.2) Protons are ____positive______ in charge and are also found in the ___nucleus________.
3) Electrons are _negative in charge and are found in the __orbitals_________ outside the nucleus. The electrons _____repel___ each other and orbit the nucleus at the speed of light. Electrons have almost no mass and occupy a large volume around the ___nucleus_______.
B. Electrons that orbit the nucleus fill ____orbitals______ outside the nucleus. The first shell can hold up to __2_____ electrons and all other shell can hold _____8_____ electrons. The orbitals fill from the ___inside______ first.
CHEMICAL REACTIONS Determined by the behavior of the electrons in the _____outer____ energy shell. Elements without full outer shells are ___reactive________ and combine with other atoms.
A chemical bond is a bond between two ____atoms______ that yields unique emergent properties that are not possessed by either atom by themselves. 1) Ionic – 2) Covalent -3) Polar Covalent –
Inorganic compounds – do not have ____C______ and ______H____ as their base.
1) Water is ____60-80______ % of the volume of most living cells. Water has a bent, ____polar_____ structure. Water has some interesting properties: a) Solubilityb) Reactivityc) High heat capacity
Salts are ______ionic______ compounds that disassociate in water causing ___ions_______ that can carry an electrical current.
Acids and Bases are important for changing the ____pH____ of solutions by adding more H+ ions or OH- ions.
a) If there are the same number of H+ and OH – ions the solutions is ___neutral_____ with a pH of 7.
b) If there are more H+ ions the solution is ___acidic_________ with a pH between 1-6.
c) If there are more OH- ions the solution is __basic________ with a pH between 8-14.
d) Buffers are compounds that ___change_______ the pH by removing or replacing H+ ions.
A) Carbohydrates are ____organic_____ molecules. 1) Contain ______C______, _________H_____ and ________O_____ in a 1:2:1 ratio.
2) ____Monosaccharides___________ are simple sugars. The most common example is glucose.
3) Disaccharides are two ____monosaccharides__________ joined together. Sucrose (table sugar) is a disaccharide.
4) ___________Polysaccharides________ are complex carbohydrates a) Cellulose is a plant polysaccharide that is indigestible.b) Glycogen is animal polysaccharide – starch that is stored.
5) When the body needs energy it breaks down glycogen into glucose molecules to be used as _____fuel__________. This is done by a process called dehydration ___synthesis_________.
6) Carbohydrate’s role in the body is for ____quick______ energy! This is the body’s _____first_____ source of fuel.
B) Lipids are ___fats_____, oils and waxes.
1) Lipids also contain _____C______ and ____H_________ in a 1:2 ratio. Although they do have oxygen atoms they contain much fewer than carbohydrates.
2) Lipids provide twice as much energy as carbohydrates do, but when there is an excess of lipids they are stored as ____fats______ in the body.
3) There are three main types of lipids: Fatty acids, Triglycerides, phospholipids
a) Fatty acids – saturated fats, unsaturated fats
1. Saturated fatty acids have ____increased_______ number of hydrogen atoms attached. Normally solid at room temperature.
2. Unsaturated fats have ____C=C______ bonds so they have fewer hydrogen atoms attached. Normally liquid at room temperature. a. Monounsaturated and b. Polyunsaturated –
3 Triglycerides are __3______ fatty acids and a glycerol molecule. They are joined by dehydration synthesis.
4. Phospholipids consist of ___2______ fatty acids connected to a ___glycerol______ molecule and a ______phosphate_______ group.
1. Hydrophilic – affinity to water
2. Hydrophobic – repelled by water
4) The role of lipids in the body is ______fat______ energy storage, to make _____proteins______ and cell membranes, and to cushion _____organs______ and joints.
C) Proteins are cells building blocks. They are composed of ____C_______, _____O______, ____H_______ and ______N______. They make up 10-30% of any given cells mass.
1) ____________Amino Acids______________ are the building blocks of proteins.a) Amino group b) Carboxyl group c) R variable group – depending on which of the ___20______ amino acids it is.
2) Protein structure is very complex and single amino acids are joined by ____peptide bonds_________.
a) Primary structure is a _____linear_____ molecule, where amino acids are linked by ____peptide________ bonds.
b) Secondary structure is when the linked molecules ______coil____ in on themselves. 1. Double helix – 2. Beta pleated sheet –
c) Tertiary structure is when the secondary structure twists into a ball to form a __globular_________ molecule.
d) The final structure, quaternary structure, is formed when two tertiary structures come together to form a ____functional_______ protein.
3) Fluctuations in _____pH_______ and _____temp________ can cause these protein structures to unfold or ______denature_________. Sometimes they can return to their original shape but too much of a shift in internal range will cause them to be irreversibly ______changed_______.
4) Proteins play an important role in the body. They are the ____last_____ source of energy, but are used to build many different cellular and tissue structures, like _muscle_ and _____hair_____.
D. Nucleic acids are composed of __C__________, _________O_____, _____H________, ____N_______ and ________P_____. These are the largest macromolecules in the body.
1) Nucleotides are the ___building blocks____ of nucleic acids. Each nucleotide consist of three major parts: a) ___ribose________ - a sugar b) ___nitrogenous base__ c) _______phosphate_____ group
2) Two major types of nucleic acids: DNA and RNA
a) DNA is found in the ______nucleus________ and contains all the ___genetic information________________________. 1) DNA is a double stranded polymer which orients itself into a double ____helix_____ or ladder-like spiral molecule.
2) DNA is made up of ____deoxyribose______________ as the sugar component and four different nitrogenous bases: ____adenine_____________,guanine__________,_______cytosine__________ and _______thymine___________.
b) RNA is located ____outside______ the nucleus and carries out the orders issued by ____DNA______.
A) Metabolism is all chemical reactions going on in the body that are necessary to _______maintain______ life functions. These reactions involve two major processes:
1) Anabolism – building ___larger________ molecules from _____smaller________ molecules. This requires ATP _____input_______.
2) Catabolism – breaking down _smaller_____________ molecules from ___larger_________molecules. This releases ATP __energy__________.
B) All chemical reactions require _________activation______ energy to get started. This ___activation___________ energy is need BOTH when the reaction is anabolic and catabolic.
1) _______catalysts_______ or enzymes are a good way to lower the amount of ________activation________ energy needed to start a reaction. a) Enzyme – b) Enzyme Substrate Complex – c) Catalyze ___millions___ of reactions per minute and remain ______unchanged______ from the reaction.
C) The energy released from breaking down a larger molecule is called ___ATP_________.
ATP 1) ___Adenine_________ -a nitrogenous base 2) ___Ribose_________ - a sugar 3) __3__________ phosphate groups
Covalent bond with unequal sharing of electrons between 2 atoms  Example: water  Electrons spend more time closer to O than H  Thus, O is more electronegative than H
Organic compounds  contain carbon  in with living things
Inorganic compounds  water, salts, acids and bases
Salts  Ionic compounds  Dissociate in water  Ions are electrolytes
What are the four main classes of organic compounds? carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids - each of these have subdivisions, know them.
How ATP Performs Work: Phosporylation  Phosphate group is transferred directly from ATP to some other molecule  Phosphorylated molecule undergoes a change that performs work
 Examples of ATP  ATP phosphorylates motor proteins that cause muscle contraction  ATP phosporylates transport proteins to move substances across the cell membrane
Regeneration of ATP  ATP is a renewable resource  add P to ADP  ATP cycle is rapid  Example: a working muscle cell recycles all it’s ATP in < 1 minute
Cellular Respiration = ATP Production
Where does glucose come from?  Your food
Where does the oxygen come from?  You breathe it in
Where does the CO2 go?  You breathe it out
Where does the water go?  Used throughout the body
Where does the ATP go?  Used to power cellular work
Cellular Respiration = ATP Production FORMULA C6H12O6 + 6O2 .... to .... 6CO2 + 6H2O + 36ATP
Created by: catalin1993



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