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A&P 1 ch 4 :Tissues

A and P Tissues

the correct order for the standard preparation of a histological specimen. 1) Fixation, (2) sectioning, (3) staining
4 Types of Tissues 1) Epithelial for covering 2) Connective for support 3) Muscle for movement 4) Nervous for control
2 types of Epithelial Tissue/Epithelium 1) Covering and lining epithelium • e.g., separates cells of bladder wall from urine 2) Glandular Epithelium • Forms glands of the body
Functions of Epithelium (PA FESS) 1) Protection • from injury, bacterial invasions 2) Absorption • in digestive tract, kidneys 3) Filtration • kidneys 4) Excretion • kidneys 5) Secretion • kidneys, glands 6) Sensory reception • nerve endings
Special Characteristics of Epithelium (CSP CAR) 1) Cellularity 2)Specialized contacts 3)Polarity 4)Connective Tissue (supported by) 5)Avascular but innervated 6)Regeneration
tight junctions Form the closest contact between adjacent cells known in nature. Found in the apical region around the cell's circumference.
Desmosomes serve localized adhesive function and connect the plasma membrane to intermediate filaments in the cytoplasm. The connections are especially important in stratified epithelium.
gap junctions 3) Gap junctions consist of intercellular channels in the plasma membrane of adjacent cells. Small molecules can diffuse across the channel and into the cytoplasm of the other cell.
Adherens junctions 4) Adherens junctions play a role in intracellular adhesion and the interaction of the actomyosin cytoskeleton with the plasma membrane.
Polarity Apical and Basal surfaces differ in structure and function
Apical Surface – surface exposed to body exterior or cavity of an internal organ
Basal Surface – lower attached surface
Supported by Connective Tissue Basement membrane
Basement Membrane Basal Lamina (top) Reticular Lamina (bottom)
Avascular but innervated How do these cells maintain nutrients? Nourished by substances from blood vessels in the basal connective tissue
Regeneration in epithelial tissue High regeneration rate since they are exposed to external substances/surfaces and damaged.
Classification of Epithelium (two names) First Name Simple OR Stratified  Second Name Squamous OR Cuboidal OR Columnar
Transitional Epithelium In urinary organs, when organs are filled with urine, cells flatten and become squamous-like
Glandular Epithelium Classification  Classification  Unicellular or Multicellular  Endocrine or Exocrine
Unicellular  Scattered within epithelium
Multicellular  Inward or outward growth from epithelium Have ducts = tubelike connections to the epithelium
Endocrine Duct-less glands  Secretion = Hormones
Exocrine Glands that have ducts  Secretions = mucous, sweat, oil, saliva, bile, etc.
Tissues definition group of cells that are similar in structure and perform a common function
Connective Tissue Characteristics 1) Common Origin o 2) Degrees of Vascularity o varies o 3) Extracellular matrix o largely non-living material which separates living cells o bear weight, withstand tension, endure abuses
Structure of Connective Tissue  Ground Substance  Fibers (= support) • Collagen • Elastic • Reticular  Cells
Ground Substance 3 major parts  Tissue Fluid  Cell Adhesion Proteins  Proteoglycan Network
Connective Tissue Functions o Binding and support (cartilage, bone) o Protection (fat) o Insulation (fat) o Transportation (blood)
The 4 types of connective tissue:  1) Connective tissue proper  Loose  Dense  2) Cartilage  3) Bone  4) Blood
Loose CT - Areolar  All three fiber types  High hyaluronic acid content  Most widely distributed  Acts like packing material  Edema  Associated with most epithelial membranes
Loose CT - Adipose Adipose  Cells: adipocytes  Peripheral nuclei  Functions:  Fat storage (energy)  Brown fat  Insulates  Cushions
Loose CT Reticular  Only reticular fibers  Found in:  Lymph nodes  Spleen  Bone marrow
Dense CT for?  Provide strength and elasticity
Dense Regular (Fibrous) CT  Collagen fibers  Locations: tendons & ligaments  Resists tensions in primarily one direction
Dense Irregular CT  Fibers in many directions  Resists tensions in many directions  Found:  Below skin  Sheath around cartilage and bone  Capsule around internal organs
Cartilage  Avascular - no blood vessels  Lack innervation - no nerves  Cells Found in holes called lacunae  Chondroblasts (during cartilage formation)  Chondrocytes (mature)
Chondroblasts (during cartilage formation)
Chondrocytes mature
Cartilage 3 Major Types:  Hyaline  Elastic  Fibrocartilage
Hyaline  Most abundant  Fibers: collagen (not visible)  Location  Tip of nose, fetal skeleton, and many more
Elastic  Elastic fibers  Recoil after bending  Pinna (external ear) & epiglottis
Fibrocartilage  Compressible  Intervertebral discs, knee
Bone Functions  Support  Leverage for movement  Protection  Hematopoiesis
Bone Features  Cells (osteoblasts/osteocytes) in a hard matrix of minerals and collagen
Bone Types  Spongy bone  Compact bone
Blood Cells and cell fragments in a liquid matrix (plasma)
Leukocytes = white blood cells (WBCs)  Fight disease
Erythrocytes = red blood cells (RBCs)  Transport respiratory gases (O2)
Platelets (cell fragments)  Clotting mechanisms
Plasma  Transports nutrients, wastes (urea,CO2, hormones)
4 Blood parts Leukocytes Erythrocytes Platelets Plasma
Connective Tissue Hierarchy 1) Connective Tissue Proper a. Loose CT 1. Areolar 2. Adipose 3. Reticular b. Dense CT 1. Dense regular 2. Dense irregular 2) Cartilage a. Hyaline b. Elastic c. Fibrocartilage 3) Bone 4) Blood
Muscle Tissues  High rate of metabolic activity  Highly vascular  for O2 and nutrients  Specialized for contraction resulting in movement
Muscle Tissue Three Major Types  Skeletal  Cardiac  Smooth
Skeletal Muscle  Attached to bones  Voluntary movement  Appear striated & multinucleate  Peripheral nuclei
Cardiac Muscle  Involuntary movement  Contraction w/in myocardium (heart wall)  Appear striated w/ large nuclei  Branching
Smooth Muscle  No visible striations  Involuntary movement  Walls of hollow organs  Digestive system, blood vessels
Nervous Tissue  Specialized for recognizing environmental changes (stimuli)  act as receptors  Integrate sensory inputs and motor outputsNervous Tissue  Cells:  Neurons  conduct information  Neuroglia  supporting cells  protect, insulate, sup
Epithelial Membranes  Consist of epithelial tissue and CT
3 types of Epithelial Membranes  Serous membranes  Cutaneous membranes  Mucous membranes
Serous Membranes  Mesothelium & areolar CT  Secrete serous fluid (lubricates & cushions)  Visceral & parietal serosae line 3 body cavities:  Pericardium  Pleura  Peritoneum
Cutaneous Membranes  Forms skin  Consists of:  Stratified squamous epithelium (epidermis)  Connective tissue (dermis) Areolar CT Dense irregular CT
Mucous Membranes  Lines body cavities open to the outside  Digestive system  Respiratory system  Reproductive tract  Urinary tract  “Wet” membranes  Bathed in secretions – mucous, urine
Intercalated discs Intercalated discs are microscopic identifying features of cardiac muscle. Cardiac muscle consists of individual heart muscle cells (cardiomyocytes) connected by intercalated discs to work as a single functional organ or syncitium.
Why are histological sections stained? To enhance contrast
Polarity is a property of all normal epithelial tissues. T or F True
The role of microvilli is to: increase surface area. Microvilli are small finger like projections that greatly increase the surface area of certain epithelial tissues. They are especially important in epithelial tissues that have a role in absorption and secretion.
Stratified squamous for Protection from wear and tear
Simple squamous for Filtration
Simple cuboidal for Secretion and absorption
Transitional for Stretching
What is the role of an exocrine gland? To secrete substances onto body surfaces.
You observe a multicellular gland with branched ducts. Interestingly, the secretory unit of the gland also has a sac-like appearance. What type of gland would this most likely be? A compound alveolar exocrine gland
A sebaceous (oil) gland of the skin must completely rupture to release its secretory products. Thus, this type of gland is considered to be a: holocrine gland
_______________ are important and common unicellular exocrine glands. Goblet cells - Mucous cells and goblet cells are common and important examples of unicellular exocrine glands.
What is true of mucin? It is a complex glycoprotein found in mucus. Mucin is a complex glycoprotein that can be dissolved in water to form mucus. In humans, all unicellular exocrine gland produce mucin.
Collagen is: a fibrous protein that provides tensile strength to certain connective tissues.
Osteoblasts Bone formation
Hematopoietic stem cells Blood cell formation
Chondroblasts Formation of cartilage
Fibroblasts Formation of fibers
White blood cells Body's defense system
Macrophages: are phagocytic cells.
What kind of classification isadipose tissue a loose connective tissue.
The skin is a ____________ membrane cutaneous
The first step in tissue repair is: inflammation
All of the body's organs are derived from three primary germ layers. Which of the primary germ layers can produce epithelial tissues? Ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm can all give rise to epithelial tissues.
Fibrosis Fibrosis involves proliferation of fibrous connective tissue called scar tissue.
Inflammation Inflammation is the first reaction to trauma that allows later events of repair to occur.
Adhesions are areas where new scar tissue grows and connects adjacent organs after surgery. T or F True. Adhesions often cause problems after surgery by preventing normal functioning of internal organs.
epithelium An epithelium is a sheet of cells that covers a body surface or lines a body cavity.
Brown adipose tissue Brown adipose tissue, found only in babies, contains many lipid droplets and numerous mitochondria that use lipid fuel to heat the bloodstream and warm the infant.
Endocrine glands Endocrine glands secrete their products into the bloodstream rather than on an epithelial surface.
Epithelium vascularity? Epithelium is avascular (lacking blood vessels) and receives nutrients from capillaries in underlying connective tissues.
Epithelial tissue secretes the basal lamina region of the basement membrane. T or F True. The basal lamina region of the basement membrane is a thin, non-cellular sheet, consisting of proteins secreted by epithelial tissue cells.
inflamation is... Inflammation is a nonspecific, local response that limits damage to the injury site while the immune response destroys particular infectious microorganisms and foreign molecules at the site of infection and throughout the body.
Microvilli Microvilli maximize the surface area across which small molecules enter or leave cells and are NOT involved in the movement of materials across the surface of a cell.
____ forms most of the body's glands. Epithelial tissue forms most of the body's glands.
Mucosa lines... Mucosa lines the inside of hollow internal organs that open to the outside of the body.
______ lines closed cavities. Mesothelium lines closed cavities.
A _______, which lines the ventral body cavity walls and viscera, consists of a ____________ lying on a thin layer of ________ tissue. A serous membrane, which lines the ventral body cavity walls and viscera, consists of a simple squamous epithelium lying on a thin layer of areolar connective tissue.
T or F With increasing age, epithelia become thinner and more easily damaged. TRUE- As we age, metabolism and tissue regeneration slows.
As we age the amount of collagen in the body declines, making tissue repair less efficient. True - The body produces less collagen as we age, adversely affecting tissue repair.
Regeneration is ... Regeneration is the replacement of destroyed tissue with the same kind of tissue.
____ is made of many osteons. Bone is made of many osteons.
Fibrosis During the process of tissue repair, fibrosis involves the proliferation of a fibrous connective tissue called scar tissue.
Embryonic ectoderm develops into which of the following major tissue types? Epithelial tissue and nervous tissue Nervous tissue develops solely from embryonic ectoderm, while epithelial tissues develop from ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm embryonic tissue.
What type of tissue forms tendons? Dense regular connective tissue
The basement membrane is located between which tissue types? Epithelial and connective Epithelial tissue secretes the superficial basal lamina region of the basement membrane, whereas connective tissue produces the deeper reticular layer of the basement membrane.
This type of epithelial tissue lines the interior of blood vessels. Endothelium - A simple squamous epithelial tissue lines the interior of blood vessels.
This unicellular gland is associated with mucus production. Goblet cells, located between columnar epithelial cells, function in producing the protein mucin, which, when combined with water, forms mucus.
Which apical epithelial cell structures functions in the movement of materials across the surface of the cell? The cilia on an epithelium bend and move in coordinated waves, pushing mucus and other substances over the epithelial surface.
What best describes a squamous-shaped cell? Squamous cells are flattened and scale-like.
Which of the following epithelial tissue types is best adapted for the rapid transport of materials across its membranes? Simple squamous epithelial tissue, composed of a single layer of flattened cells, occurs wherever small molecules must pass through a membrane quickly.
Does the areolar connective tissue provide movement of body parts No, areolar connective tissue holds body fluids, stores nutrients, supports and binds other tissues, and defends the body against infection, movement of body parts is a task performed by the three different types of muscle tissue.
does epithelial tissue have a function of control? No, Epithelial tissue functions in protection, secretion, ion transport, and filtration, but control is the primary responsibility of nervous tissue.
What epithelial tissue lines the majority of the digestive tract? Simple columnar epithelial tissue lines most of the digestive tract, from the stomach to the anus.
What epithelial tissue provides the greatest amount of protection? Stratified squamous is the thickest form of epithelial tissue and is composed of multiple layers of flat cells.
What is the proper sequence of tissue repair? Tissue damage, blood clotting, scab formation, organization, fibrosis, regeneration.
What are the functional characteristics of epithelial tissue? Secretion, protection, absorption, filtration
Mucous that protects your stomach lining is secreted by a specialized type of: simple columnar epithelial cell. Goblet cells are simple columnar epithelial cells.
A type of connective tissue that provides primary support and protection for body structures is osseous tissue.
Reticular connective tissue is found in soft tissues and does not provide primary support.
Which type of tissue is found on the surface of the skin? The epidermis is stratified squamous epithelium.
Artifacts are the minor distortion seen in cells from staining procedures.
Microvilli are found on the ________ of the cell. Microvilli are present on the free surface of the cell, which is its the apical.
The presence of keratin provides a tough protective characteristic to: stratified sqamous epithelium
merocrine gland A merocrine gland excretes its secretion by exocytosis without rupturing the cell.
Connective tissue arises from which embryonic tissue? Mesoderm
ectoderm gives rise to _________ Ectoderm gives rise to nervous tissue.
A flat sheath-like tendon that connects muscle to bone is known as: An aponeurosis is a flat sheath-like tendon that connects muscle to muscle or bone.
Blood is considered a connective tissue because: Blood is considered a connective tissue because it arises from mesenchymal tissue.
The stroma of most solid organs is composed of: reticular connective tissue.
___________ tissue serves as a packing material between tissues. Areolar connective tissue serves as a packing material between tissues.
Walls of the air sacs of the lungs and lining blood vessels Simple squamous
Upper respiratory tract cell type Pseudostratified ciliated columnar
Walls of smallest ducts of glands and kidney tubules Simple cuboidal
Lines the urinary bladder Transitional
Skin Keratinized stratified squamous
Mammary glands composed of? Compound alveolar
Salivary glands composed of? Compound tubuloalveolar
Intestinal glands composed of? Simple tubular
Sebaceous glands composed of? Simple branched alveolar
Collagen fibers The strongest and most abundant fibers, they allow connective tissues to resist tension
Reticular fibers These short branching fibers cluster into delicate networks and have the ability to glide freely across one another whenever the network is pulled, allowing give
Elastic fibers These long, thin, branching fibers form wide networks within the extracellular matrix and possess the ability to stretch and then return to their original length
Mast cells Secrete histamine
Plasma cells Produce antibodies
Fibroblasts Produce collagen, elastic, and reticular fibers
Macrophages Phagocytic cells that engulf foreign matter
Adipocytes Store fat molecules
Adipose location Hypodermis; in mesenteries; surrounding kidneys; posterior to eyeballs
Elastic cartilage location Supports external ear, epiglottis
Dense regular connective tissue location Ligaments; tendons; aponeuroses
Fibrocartilage location Intervertebral discs; pubis symphysis; menisci of knee joint
Reticular connective tissue location Bone marrow; spleen; lymph nodes
Osteoblast Bone-producing cell
Plasma Liquid portion of blood
Chondrocyte . Cartilage-producing cell
Extracellular matrix Non-living material located between the cells of a connective tissue
Reticular cell Type of fibroblast
Cutaneous membrane Covers the outer surface of the body
Mucous membrane (mucosa) Lines the inside of hollow organs that open to the body's exterior
Serous membrane (serosae) Lines the ventral body cavity walls and covers the ventral body cavity viscera
Skeletal muscle tissue Striated; multinucleated cells; long, large, cylinder-shaped cells
Smooth muscle tissue No striations; spindle-shaped cells; uninucleated cells
Cardiac muscle tissue Striated; branching cells; intercalated discs; generally uninucleated cells
Hyaline cartilage location Forms embryonic skeleton and covers the ends of long bones
Dense regular connective tissue location Primary tissue of ligaments and tendons
Dense irregular connective tissue location Primary tissue of the dermis
Connective tissue proper Loose connective tissue (areolar, adipose, and reticular); dense connective tissue (dense regular, dense irregular, and elastic)
Cartilage Stands up to both tension and compression; tough and flexible, providing resilient rigidity
Bone tissue Supports and protects body structures; stores fat; synthesizes blood cells
Blood Most atypical connective tissue; extracellular fibers are soluble protein molecules found in liquid plasma; abundant extracellular matrix
Cutaneous membrane Provides protection for outer surface of body
Mucous membrane Provides secretions that lubricate and protect areas that open to the outside of the body
Serous membrane Provides secretions for lubrication of organs enclosed within the body cavities
Fibroblast Produces materials in connective tissue proper
Chondroblast Produces extracellular matrix of cartilage
Osteoblast Produces extracellular matrix of bone
Hematopoietic stem cell Produces blood cells
Epithelial tissue embryonic origin Ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm
Connective tissue and muscle tissue embryonic origin Mesoderm
Nervous tissue embryonic origin Ectoderm
Very good at regenerating Epithelial tissue, bone, loose connective tissue, and blood
Moderate regenerating capacity Smooth muscle and dense connective tissue
Skeletal muscle and cartilage Poor regenerating capacity
No useful regeneration Nervous tissue and cardiac muscle
Created by: catalin1993



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