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M6 13-005

Exam 14: Intro to Blood & Lymphatics

Characteristics of blood: Contains (1) Blood is a viscous red fluid which contains, red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets which are suspended in a light yellow fluid called plasma.
Characteristics of blood: Volume (2) Plasma constitutes 55% of blood volume. Remaining 45% is RBC, WBC, and platelets.
Characteristics of blood: Acidity Blood is slightly alkaline pH of 7.35-7.45.
Characteristics of blood: Average Volume (adult) 5-6 liters
Functions of blood: Oxygen & Nutrients Transports oxygen and nutrients to cells and waste products away from cells, and transports hormones from the endocrine glands to the tissue and cells.
Functions of blood: Fluid and Electrolytes Regulates the acid-base balance with buffers, aids in control of body temperature (due to high water content), and controls water content of cells based on sodium concentrations.
Functions of blood: Infection Protects the body against infection with leukocytes and prevents blood loss with the clotting mechanism.
Red Blood Cells- Erythrocytes: Contains cytoplasm and hemoglobin. compound in the blood that transports oxygen and carbon dioxide
Red Blood Cells- Erythrocytes: Production Produced in the red bone marrow through erythropoiesis.
Normal Hemoglobin levels: Men: 14-18 g/dl. Women: 12-16 g/dl.
Erythropoiesis the process of RBC production
hematocrit a measure of the packed cell volume of red blood cells, expressed as percentages of the total blood volume.
Leukocytes (WBC): Purpose Conduct body defense from foreign invaders- can leave blood stream to fight foreign invaders such as bacteria.
Leukocytes (WBC): Production Produced in bone marrow
Leukocytes (WBC): 2 Broad Categories granulocytes and nongranulocytes.
differential white blood cell count examination in which the different kinds of WBC’s are counted and reported as percentages of the total examined.
Granulocytes: 3 types neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils
phagocytosis process by which bacteria, cellular debris, and solid particles are destroyed and removed; "eat" invaders
Neutrophils: Volume make up 70% of WBC
Neutrophils: Purpose Ingest bacteria and dispose of dead tissue – a mature neutrophil is called a segmental neutrophil or “seg” because nucleases is segmented.
Eosinophils: Purpose Key in allergic responses.
Basophils: Purpose a) Key in the non-specific immune response, seen in allergic and inflammatory reactions.
Nongranulocytes: 2 Types Monocytes & Lymphocytes
Monocytes WBCs that circulate in the blood stream and work similarly to neutrophils.
Monocytes: Purpose Second type of WBC that arrives at the scene of an injury. Move into the tissue, where they engulf foreign antigens and cell debris.
Lymphocytes are white blood cells that form antibody, a special protein that combats foreign invaders or antigens. Lymphocytes are broken down into two groups T cells and B cells that directly kill invaders and produce antibodies.
Thrombocytes (Platelets): Production Produced in the red bone marrow.
Thrombocytes (Platelets): Purpose Assist in clotting formation
Thrombocytes (Platelets): Normal value 150,000-400,000 per mm3 of blood.
Hemostasis Body process that stops flow of blood and prevent hemorrhage.
Hemostasis: Three actions 1) Vessel spasm. 2) Platelet plug formation. 3) Clot formation.
Blood types: determined determined by the presence or absence of specific antigens on the outer surface of the RBC’s.
ABO typing system: types Type A. Type B. Type AB-Universal recipient. Type O- Universal Donor
Rh Factor: Rh Positive If located on the surface of the RBC’s
Rh Factor: Rh Negative People who do not have Rh factor
Lymphatic System: Description Subdivision of the cardiovascular system- Consists of lymphatic vessels, lymph fluid and lymph tissue.
Lymphatic System: Functions (a) Maintain fluid balance. (b) Produce (mature) lymphocytes (WBC produced in the bone marrow but matured in lymph tissue). (c) Absorption and transportation of lipids from the intestine to the stream.
Lymph fluid: Formed (b) Fluid is formed in the tissue spaces and transported via the lymphatic system to eventually reenter the circulatory system
Lymph Fluid: Without Drainage volume overload in tissues would occur
Lymphatic vessels: Description Vessels that connect lymph nodes and collect lymph fluid
Lymphatic Vessels: Purpose Connected to the circulatory system for return of lymph fluid to blood.
Lymph tissue: Types Lymph Nodes. Tonsils.
Lymph Nodes (glands): Two Functions a) Filter impurities from the lymph. b) Produce lymphocytes (T cell and B cells).
Lymph Nodes: Locations The body contains 500-600 lymph nodes- most numerous in axilla, groin, abdomen, thorax, and cervical regions.
Tonsils: Purpose 1) Protect the body against invasion. 2) Produce lymphocytes and antibodies. 3) Trap bacteria and may become enlarged.
Spleen: location Located in left upper quadrant, just below the diaphragm - highly vascular
Spleen: Functions 1) Serves as a reservoir for blood. Stores approximately 500 ml. 2) Matures lymphocytes, monocytes and plasma cells (B cells). 3) Destroys worn-out RBCs. 4) Removes bacteria by phagocytosis (engulfing and digesting). 5) Produce RBCs before birth.
Thymus: Location Located between the lungs in the mediastinum
Thymus: Function (c) Responsible for the development of T cells for the cell mediated immune response before they migrate to the lymph nodes and the spleen.
Thymus: Fun Facts (b) Functions in utero and for several months after birth to develop the immune system. The thymus atrophies at puberty.
Blood and Lymph Diagnostic Tests CBC. Erythrocyte Indices. Differential Count. Peripheral Smear. Schilling Test & Anemia Profile. Gastric Analysis. Lymphangiography. Bone Marrow Aspiration or Biopsy.
Complete Blood Count (CBC): Function (a) Detects many disorders of the hematological system and provides data for the diagnosis and evaluation of disorders in other body systems.
Complete Blood Count (CBC): Includes (b) Includes red and white cell counts, hematocrit and hemoglobin level, erythrocyte (RBC) indices, differential white cell count, and examination of the peripheral blood cells.
Erythrocyte Indices (Red Cell Indexes): Function Measurements of the size and hemoglobin content of erythrocytes.
Erythrocyte Indices (Red Cell Indexes): Includes Mean corpuscular volume (MCV). Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH). Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC).
Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) the average volume or size of a single RBC.
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) the average amount of (weight) hemoglobin within an RBC.
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) the average concentration or the percentage of hemoglobin within an RBC.
Differential Count: Description Actual cell count of leukocytes. Identifies the number and percentage of individual types, i.e., neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils, monocytes and macrophages.
Peripheral Smear (a) Often accompanies the differential WBC count and permits examination of the size, shape, and structure of individual RBCs, WBCs and platelets. (b) Most informative of all hematologic tests.
Schilling Test and Megaloblastic Anemia Profile: Description Laboratory test that identifies the etiology of pernicious anemia (vitamin B12 deficiency).
Schilling Test and Megaloblastic Anemia Profile: Purpose (c) The test measures absorption in the stomach radioactive vitamin B12 which is dependent on intrinsic factor, produced by the gastric mucosa (secreted by parietal cells, which also secrete HCI acid).
Gastric Analysis: Purpose Evaluates presence of intrinsic factor.
Gastric Analysis: Fun Fact In pernicious anemia the gastric secretions are minimal and the pH remains elevated, after injection of histamine (histamine injection should cause an increased HCL acid secretion if parietal cells are functioning properly).
Radiologic studies: Involves Involve primarily computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for evaluating the spleen, liver or lymph nodes.
Bone marrow aspiration or biopsy: Piurpose specific for establishing the diagnosis and for treatment response. Used when diagnosis is not clearly established by peripheral blood smears or when further information is needed.
Bone marrow aspiration or biopsy: Most Common Spot Used b) Iliac crest most commonly used, although the sternum can also be used
Bone marrow aspiration or biopsy: Most Commonly Performed on persons with marked anemia, neutropenia, acute leukemia, and thrombocytopenia.
Created by: jtzuetrong



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