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Exam I- Lecture 2: The Integument

Integument 1. largest most extensive organ systems in body 2. composed of all 4 tissue types 3. outer shell entirely dead
Integumentary system 1. skin + related structures 2. prevents desiccation, reduce threat, excrete water, receieve/convert sensory info
Keratin tough protective substance
Keratinization 1. process by which cell substance expires 2. gives keratinocytes ability to rub off or exfoliate daily
Layers of skin Epidermis, Dermis, Hypodermis
Dermis layers separated by epithelial basement
Where is Hypodermis located found below dermis, composed of adipose tissue
List the cells of the epidermis 1. Keratinocytes 2. Melanocyte 3. Langergans cells 4. Merkel cells
Keratinocytes 1. produce keratin
Melanocyte 1. pigment production 2. found in deeper layers of skin 3. makes melanin -> dark pigment stored in membrane bound granules (melanosomes)
Langerhans cells 1. macrophage specific to the epidermis 2. Originates in the bone 3. Phagocytize microinvaders and stimulates other cells of the immune system
Merkel cells 1. epidermal-dermal junction 2. assoc w/ sensory nerve 3. aid in touch sensation 4. half-dome shape of sensory nerve + merkel cells= merkel disk
Merkel disc Half-dome shape of sensory nerve + merkel cells
List the layers of epidermis 1. Stratum germinativum 2. Stratum spinosum 3. Stratum granulosum 4. Stratum lucidum 5. Stratum corneum 4.
Stratum germinativum 1. deepest layer 2. aka stratum basale 3. single row of keratinocytes attached to epithelial basement membrane 4. actively engaged in cell div 5. merkel cells, melanocytes, keratinocytes found here
Which cells are found in the Stratum germinativum merkel cells, melanocytes, keratinocytes
Which layer of epidermis is the deepest layer Stratum germinativum
Which cells of the epidermis originate in the bone Langerhans cells
Which cells of the epidermis aid in touch sensation Merkel cells
Which layer of epidermis is known as the spiny layer Stratum spinosum
Which layer of epidermis is the clear layer Stratum lucidum
Which layer of epidermis is outermost and dominates the epidermis Stratum corneum
Stratum spinosum 1. spiny layer 2. cell layers held together by desmosomes 3. infrequent divisions seen 4. Langerhans in greater abundance
Stratum granulosum 1. 2-4 layers of flat diamond-shape keratinocytes 2. cytoplasm fills with keratohyaline & lamellated granules 3. dramatic degeneration of nucleus 4. lamellate granules have waterproofing glycolipids and transported to periphery of cell
Which cells of the Stratum granulosum are known as waterproof cells Lamellate granules
Stratum lucidum 1. clear layer 2. thick skin most skin lacks this layer, dead cells 3. Keratogranules with intracellular tonofilaments to form keratin fibrils
Stratum corneum 1. outermost layer 2. dominates epidermis 3. 3 quarters of total epidermal thickness: 20-30 layers 4. remnants of keratinocytes
How many layers of epidermis of the hairy skin 3 instead of 5
List the layers of epidermis of the hairy skin 1. stratum basale 2. stratum spinosum 3. stratum corneum
Tylotrich hairs 1. important in touch perception 2. tactile hair 2. tactile elevations (epidermal papillae)
Dermis 1. 2 layers 2. binds superficial epidermis to underlying tissues 3. composed of dense irregular CT 4. structural strength of the skin 5. Hair follicles, nerve endings, sm muscle, blood vess, lymphatic channels
List the layers of dermis Papillary layer & Reticular Layer
Papillary layer of dermis 1. beneath epithelial layer 2. loose CT w/ loosely woven fibers & ground substance 3. dermal papillae 4. mesissners corpuscles
Dermal papillae 1. In papillary layer of dermis 2. rise up into epidermis 3. cements the epidermis and dermis together
What cements the epidermis and dermis together and where is this structure located? Dermal papillae; located in papillary layer of dermis
Meissner's Corpuscle Pain & touch receptors; found in papillary layer of dermis
Reticular layer of dermis 1. dense irregular CT 2. 80% of dermis 3. binding & see dermal folds
Hypodermis 1. thick layer 2. loose layer of areolar tissue rich in blood, lymphatic vessels, nerves 3. pacinian corpuscle 4. permits skin to move free over underlying bone & muscle
What is the thick layer the resides below the dermis hypodermis
pacinian corpuscle 1. touch receptor 2. heavier pressure than meissner's corpuscle 3. found in hypodermis
Special features of the integument 1. pigmentation 2. paw pads 3. planum nasale 4. Ergots and chestnuts 5. cutaneous pouches in sheep
Langerhans cells are found in abundance in which epidermis layer Stratum spinosum
Which epidermal layer is composed of 20-30 rows of keratocyte "remnants" Stratum corneum
Dermis is composed of dense irregular CT, what is included in this collagen, elastic, reticular fibers
What is present in Dermis 1. hair follicles 2. nerve endings 3. glands 4. smooth muscle 5. blood vessels 6. lymphatics 7. fibroblasts 8. adipocytes 9. macrophages
Special feature of the integument: Pigmentation 1. more granules present, the darger the pigmentation 2. keratocytes arrange melanin on side of cell with most sun exposure 3. protects keratocytes from exposure to UV rays 4. Melanocyte-stimulating hormone controls granule dispersion
When is there no pigmentation if granules concentrated around nucleus of melanocyte
When does pigmentation become macroscopically apparent As granules move into cellular extensions and into surrounding tissue
Hypophysis Controls MSH (melanocyte-stimulating hormone)
Paw Pads 1. thick layers fat & CT 2. outer surface is thickest & toughest in body 3. 5 layers but Strat corneum biggest 4. conical papillae covers whole pad 5. exocrine sweat glands & lamellar corpuscles 6. respide on carpal pads, metatarsal pads, digital pad
Planum Nasale 1. Top of nose: cats, dogs, sheep, pigs 2. made of 3 epidermal layers: stratum germinativum, spinosum, corneum 3. aglandular except in sheep, pigs, cows 4. pigmented, thick 5. start corneum 4-8 cell layers 6. deep grooves 3. 4.
Which epidermal layers are absent in planum nasale Stratum lucidum & granulosum
Planum nasolabiale muzzle of cows and horses
Ergots 1. smaller, overlooked borruid in long caudal hairs of fetlock 2. Vestigs of 2nd & 4th digit
Chestnuts 1. Dark brown inside of leg at carpus 2. Vestiges of carpal & tarsal pad of first digit
Ergots & Chestnuts 1. Dark horny structures on equine 2. horse walks on third digit
Cutaneous pouch in Sheep 1. infoldings of skin 2. infraorbital, interdigital, inguinal 3. fine hairs, sebaceous & oil glands 4. secrete fatty yellow substance, dries & sticks to skin when dry
Hair is formed in 3 concentric layers, list them 1. medulla 2. cortex 3. cuticle
Shaft (hair) portion visible about the skin
Root (hair) burined within the skin
hair follicle anchor, invagination of epidermis extending from skin surface
hair bulb deepest part of hair follicle
What is the deepest part of hair follicle hair bulb
papilla base of bulb, mound of dermal cells papilla
root hair plexus web of sensory nerve endings
compound follicles 1. multiple hair strands emerge from single epidermal orifice 2. primary hair: guard/cover hair 3. secondary hair: satellite hair
Function of hair maintains body temp, camouflage
Hair Color 1. pigment in cortex & medulla 2. Darker achieved with large amts melanin 3. White: cortex loses pigment entirely & medulla completely filled with air
How many types of maleanin do dogs and horses produce? Horse: 1 Dog: 2
Pheomelanin yellowish & reddish colors
Tyrosine melanin brown black colors
List the types of hair Primary, Secondary/wool type, Tactile (sinus) hairs
Primary Hair 1. straight or arched 2. thicker & longer than secondary hairs 3. dominant hairs in follicle
Secondary/wool type 1. softer & shorter 2. wavy or bristled in dogs
Tactile (sinus) hairs 1. sensory endings 2. whiskers 3. presence of large blood sinus -> located in CT portion of follicle
Arrector pili muscles 1. allows hair to stand when cold or scared, beyond normal implant angle 2. is small smooth muscle 3. innervated by sympathetic nervous system
Sebaceous glands 1. in dermis 2. store oily liquid substance made of glycerides & FFA 3. antibacterial & antifunga; props 4. released when arrector pili muscle contracts 5. white semiliquid -> sebum 6. sheep-> make lanolin
Sweat Glands 1. sudoriferous glands 2. found all over body 3. 2 types: Eccrine & Apocrine
Name the types of sweat glands Eccrine & Apocrine
Eccrine sweat glands 1. Excretory portion is simple, coiled tube located in dermis or hypodermis 2. empty onto surface of skin thru long duct 3. dogs -> only found in deep layer & tissue of foot haps
Aprocrine sweat glands 1. coiled excretory portion buried in dermis or hypodermis 2. single excretory duct 3. empty into hair follicles
Tail glands 1. oval region at dorsal base of tail 2. assist with recognition & ID of indiv animals 3. coarse, oily hairs 4. apocrine & sebaceous glands large in region
Anal Sacs 1. expressed when animal frightened or defecates 2. located 5 to 7 o'clock relative to anus 3. connected to lateral margin of anus via single duct 4. lined w/ sebaceous & apocrine glands
Claws 1. pigmented 2. outer coverings of distal digits 3. keep good traction 4. only retractable in cats
Dewclaws 1. evolutionary remnants of digits 2. In dog it's 1st digit 3. In cow, sheep, pig medial & lateral dewclaws 2nd & 5th digits
Dewclaw is which digit in dog 1st
Dewclaw is which digit in cow, sheep, pigs 2nd & 5th
What bones are present in dewclaws of pigs Metacarpal & Phaland
Hoof 1. Horny outer covering digits of some animals 2. aka ungula 3. weightbaring hooves are 3rd & 4th digit
What do you call hoofed animals ungulates
Claws & hooves rest on underlying sensitive tissue called what? What is it attached to? 1. Corium 2. attached to peristeum of 3rd phalanx 3. rich with blood vessels provide cells with nutrients
Skeletal food of horse includes: 1. distal part of 2nd phalanx 2. distal sesamoid bone (navicular bone) 3. entire third phalanx (coffin bone)
Lamunae hoof and corium formed in elaborate array of interdigitation
Coffin bone 1. has layer of corium which is covered by the cornified hoof
The hoof and corium form interdigitations called what? Laminae
The equine hoof is generally divided into 3 parts: wall, sole, frog
Wall of equine hoof 1. External portion of hoof 2. Divided into toe, quarters, heels
Sole of equine hoof 1. Plantar or palmar surface of hoof 2. lacks innervation 3. avascular 3. white line -> junction of sale & hoof wall
The frog of the hoof 1. insensitive, triangular, horny structure betw heels on underside of hoof 2. divided by central depression aka central sulcus 3. Lateral cartilages extend proximally from distal phalanx
Digital cushion thick pad of fat & fibrous tissue lying beneath sensitive frog
Horns 1. epidermal in origin 2. made keratin 3. emerge from frontal bones 4. horny 5. corium lies at root of horn bound to horn by periosteum 6. wall thinner at base than apex 7. body is made of tightly packed tubules
Adult horn hollow & communicates directly with frontal sinus
Anatomy Form and structure of the body
Sagittal left/right now necessarily equal
Median plane qual left & right halves
Transverse divides into cranial & caudal (not always =)
Dorsal 1. right angles to sagittal & transverse plans 2. divides into dorsal & ventral
Cranial toward head
Caudal toward tail (humans use superior & inferior)
Rostral towards nose
Dorsal Back
Ventral toward belly (humans use anterior and posterior)
Medial median line
Lateral away from median plane
Deep toward center of body
Superficial surface
Proximal toward body
Distal away
Carpus proximal distal dividing line for front leg
Tarsus dividing line for rear leg
Palmar back surface of front leg distal to carpus
Plantar back of hind leg distal to tarsus
Dorsal: CNS Body Cavity Cranial cavity: cranium Spinal cord: spinal cavity
Ventral cavity: viscera 1. Diaphragm divides into thoracic & abdominal cavity 2. Organs in thoracic covered by then membrane pleura 3. layer covers organs -> viscera 4. layer lines thoracic cavity parietal layer of pleura
Cells basic functional unit
Tissue group of specialized cells
Organs group of tissue work for common purpose
Organ system group of organs involved in common set of activities
Types of tissue 1. epithelial 2. CT 3. Muscle 4. Nervous
Homeostasis 1. Maintain dynamic equilibrium of body
Created by: NinaP183



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