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REHAB 350

Muscular System

Muscle Tissue
Skeletal muscle -voluntary, striated (due to actin & myacin), cells are cylindrical and function is so move bones of skeleton.
Smooth muscle Involuntary, cell is fusiform in shape, located in walls of hollow internal structures, regulated by neurons and hormones
Cardiac muscle Involuntary, striated, cells joined via intercollated discs. Forms most of the heart's walls. Built-in rhythm called autorhythmicity.
Excitability Ability for muscle cell to respond to stimuli by producing action potentials.
Contractility Ability of a muscle to contract and create tension when stimulated by an action potential.
Extensilibility Ability of a muscle to stretch and contract forcefully without injury.
Elasticity Ability for a muscle to return to its original length and shape following a contraction or extension.
Fascia Fibrous connective tissue that supports and surrounds organs.
Epimysium Dense irregular connective tissue that covers the outer most layer of a muscle.
Perimysium Dense irregular connective tissue that surrounds groups of individual fibers (known as fascicles).
Endomysium Sheet of areolar connective tissue that surrounds one individual muscle fiber.
Tendon Dense irregular connective tissue that extends from the epimysium, perimysium and endomysium and attaches a muscle to the periosteum covering the bone.
Aponeurosis A broad flat sheet of connective tissue.
Tendon (synovial) sheaths Tubes of fibrous connective tissue that surround tendons of the wrist and ankles.
How is a muscle named? Size, shape, location, action, direction of fibers, combination.
Agonist (prime mover) Muscle or group of muscles causing the prime movement around a joint.
Antagonist Muscle of group of muscles whose action is opposite to that of the agonist muscle.
Synergist A muscle or group of muscles that assists in preventing unwanted movements or aids with the prime mover.
Fixator A group of muscles that stabilize the joint in order for the prime mover to be more efficient.
Origin (proximal) Is the stationary point to which the opposite end of the muscle moves towards by contracting.
Insertion (distal) Is the point furthest from its stationary attachment.
What are the extrinsic muscles that suspend the scapula from the trunk? Trapezius, levator scapulae, rhomboids, serratus anterior, pectoralis minor
What are the muscles attaching the trunk to the humerus? Latissimus dorsi and the pectoralis major
Where does the trapezius originate? It originates from: Superior - external occipital protuberance, superior nuchal line, and ligamentum nuchae Middle - spinous processes C7 - T5 Inferior - spinous processes T6 - T12
Where does the trapezius insert? Insertion: clavicle, acronium, and spine of scapula.
What actions does the trapezius perform? Superior - elevate the scapula Middle - retract scapula Inferior - depress scapula Superior + inferior - laterally rotate scapula.
Where does the levator scapulae originate? It originates from: Transverse processes of C1-C4 vertebrae
Where does the levator scapulae insert? Superior border of scapula, above root of spine.
What actions does the levator scapulae perform? Elevates and medially rotates the scapula.
Where does the rhomboids originate? It originates from: Major - spinous processes T2 - T5 Minor - ligamentum nuchae and spinous processes C7 - T1
Where does the rhomboids insert? Medial border of scapula from root of spine (minor) to inferior angle of scapula (major).
What actions does the rhomboids perform? Retracts and medially rotates the scapula.
Where does the serratus anterior originate? It originates from: ribs 1 - 8 (external surface)
Where does the serratus anterior insert? Medial border of scapula anterior border
What actions does the serratus anterior perform? Protracts, laterally rotates and holds scapula against thoracic wall.
Where does the pectoralis minor originate? It originates from: Ribs 2 - 5
Where does the pectoralis minor insert? Coracoid process
What actions does the pectoralis minor perform? It draws scapula forward and downwards
Where does the Latissimus dorsi originate? It originates from: Spinous process T6 - T12 Thoracolumbar fascia Iliac crest Lower 3 - 4 ribs Inferior angle of scapula
Where does the latissimus dorsi insert? Floor of bicipital (intertuberclular) groove.
What actions does the latissimus dorsi perform? Adducts and medially rotates arm
Where does the pectoralis major originate? It originates from: Clavicular head - medial 1/2 of clavicle Sternal head - sternum, first 6 costal cartilages
Where does the pectoralis major insert? Lateral lip bicipital groove.
What actions does the pectoralis major perform? Adduction, medial rotation, flexion and extension.
What are the muscles that attach the humerus to the scapula? Scapular Muscles (2) and the Rotator Cuff Muscles (4)
What are the scapular muscles? (1) Deltoid and (2) Teres Major
What are the Rotator Cuff muscles? (1) Supraspinatus (2) Infraspinatus (3) Teres Minor (4) Subscapularis
Where does the deltoid originate? It originates from: Anterior - lateral 1/3 clavicle Middle - Acronium Posterior - spine of scapula
Where does the deltoid insert? Deltoid tuberosity
What actions does the deltoid perform? Anterior - flex and medially rotate shoulder Middle - Abduct Posterior - Extend and laterally rotate shoulder
Where does the teres major originate? It originates from: Inferior angle and adjacent lateral border of the scapula
Where does the teres major insert? Medial lip bicipital (intertubercular) groove
What actions does the teres major perform? Adducts, medially rotates and extends the arm
Where does the supraspinatus originate? It originates from: Supraspinous fossa
Where does the supraspinatus insert? Greater tubercle (superior facet)
What actions does the supraspinatus perform? Abducts humerus first 15 - 20 degrees, after abduction is initiated then the deltoid can also abduct the arm.
Where does the infraspinatus originate? It originates from: Infraspinus fossa
Where does the infraspinatus insert? Greater tubercle (middle facet)
What actions does the infraspinatus perform? Lateral rotation of humerus
Where does the teres minor originate? It originates from: Lateral border of scapula
Where does the teres minor insert? Greater tubercle (inferior facet)
What actions does the teres minor perform? It laterally rotates the humerus
Where does the subscapularis originate? It originates from: Subscapular fossa
Where does the subscapularis insert? Lesser tubercle
What actions does the subscapularis perform? Medial rotation of humerus
What are the abdominal muscles? (1) Rectus Abdominus (2) External Abdominal Oblique (3) Internal Abdominal Oblique (4) Transversus Abdominus
Where does the rectus abdominus originate? It originates from: Pubic symphysis and the pubic crest
Where does the rectus abdominus insert? Xiphoid process and 5th -7th costal cartilage
What actions does the rectus abdominus perform? Flexes the trunk and helps compress the internal viscera
Can the rectus abdominus be palpated? Yes, it can be palpated inferior to the xiphoid process.
Where does the external abdominal oblique originate? It originates from: External surface inferior border of the 5th - 12th ribs
Where does the external abdominal oblique insert? It inserts into the anterior 1/2 iliac crest, linea aspera and the pubic tubercle.
What actions does the external abdominal oblique muscles perform? Flex and rotate the trunk, as well as help to compress the internal viscera.
Where does the internal abdominal oblique originate? It originates from: Iliac crest, thoracolumbar fascia, and the inguinal ligament.
Where does the internal abdominal oblique insert? It inserts in the ribs 10 - 12, linea aspera and the pubic bone
What actions does the internal abdominal oblique muscles perform? Flex and rotate the trunk, as well as help to compress the internal viscera.
Where does the transversus abdominus originate? It originates from: Internal surfaces of 7th - 12th costal cartilage, iliac crest, thoracolumbar fascia and the inguinal ligament
Where does the transversus abdominus insert? Linea aspera and pubic crest
Created by: vtruong