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medial coliform density of 2700/100 ml causes significant increase in gastrointestinal illness
age that does the most swimming five to 19
PAM primary amebic meningoencephalitis rare but fatal when head is immersed into contaminated waters Naegleria fowleri
will chlorine inactivate crypto? nope, need sand filter as well
a strong chlorine odor indicates chloramines
spa optimal total alkalinity as CaCO3 80-120 mg/l
spa optimal free chlorine residual 3-5 mg/l
spa optimal combined chlorine zero
spa optimal pH 7.5-7.6
pool optimal ph 7.2-8
pool alkalinity (methyl orange MO) Clarity at least 50 mg/l
pool plate count (agar 24 hrs at 95F) not more than 15 percent of the samples more than 200 colonies/ml
the depth of water under an on deck diving board 9 feet and extend forward for 16 feet
life guard (span of control) 1/100 bathers or 1/100 yards of beach
fence around pool at least 4 feet high
3 meter board pool depth 12 feet
water depth marks occur every 25 feet or at 2 ft changes
recirculate water every ___ hours 6-8 hours recirculate spa water every
chemicals for disinfection chlorination, bromine, iodine, cyanuric acid maybe but carcinogen. Sodium hypochlorite recommended, ozone and chlorine dioxide
sodium bicarbonate addition will raise alkalinity
free chlorine residual range 1.0 to 3.0 mg/l
adjust pool alkalinity with soda ash (sodium carbonate)
how many inches of sand for high rate filter? 12"
filter media for pool granulated activated carbon
diatomacous earch flow rate up to 2.5 gpm ft2
which intakes dictate design? recirculation from main drains and perimeter overflow or skimmers
wash water rate 15 gpm/ft2
overflow gutters need to be level to 1/8"
what percent of recirc is from gutters or skimmers? 60%
one skimmer for how many square feet? 500
how often do you need floor drains? every 25 feet
UV light is ok as long as you use ??? With it? hydrogen peroxide
what free available residual chlorine do you need to maintain? at least 0.6 mg/l
operating level of free chlorine 1-3 mg/l is required
hypochlorous acid and hypochlorite ion = free available chlorine
what pH will chlorine lose effectiveness? ph higher than 8.4
water clarity standard for pool secchi disk- 6 in
cloudy pool water due to: improper filtration, need for alum, high alkalinity
reddish brown water iron
temp of water entering pool not more than 104
strainer openings at least how many times the size 4 times the area of main line with openings no greater than 1/8 inch
rate of filtration 2-3 gpm/ft squared with sand or anthracite
swimmer displaces 17-20 gal of water
outlet drains how far apart? 15 feet
pool inlets every 20 feet
what is slow acting against immediate bacterial contamination? combined residual chlorine, so free available chlorine is imperative
oxidation reduction potential (ORP) redox potential, index of disinfection (millivolts) NO less than 700 mV
how often should you test pH and chlorine residual? 3 times a day
sudden jump in pH may be caused by algae
prevent algae by maintaining free chlorine residual
principal scale former calcium carbonate
saturation index formula SI= pH + TF (temperature factor) + Calcium factor + Alkalinity Factor - 12.1
optimum saturation index zero
water temp for general pool use suggested at 80F, air temp 5F more than that
preferred method of testing for residaul chlorine DPD test
wading pool recirc every ?? Hrs one to two hours
shistosomiasis life cycle not complete without___ snail, dry off before water dries
ideal pool pH when clear with appropriate disinfectant 7.4
how many acids formed when chlorine is added to water? one acid is formed
free chlorine for pools and water parks min 1.0, ideal 2-4, max 5
free chlorine for spas min 2.0, ideal 3-5, max 10ppm
ideal ph of rec water 7.2-7.6
fence around pool buildings 6 ft
diving board height 1 meter and 3 meters
diving board dimensions 16 feet by 20 inches, extend 6 ft beyond pool wall
highest level of contamination in pools surface, skimmers are important, many organisms
turnover rate = (pool capacity in gallons)/(flow meter reading (gpm))(60)
4 primary types of pool filters sand, diatomaceous earth, cartridge
rapid rate sand filter 3 gal/min/ft2
high rate sand filter 12-20 gpm/ft2
Diatomaceous earth filter up to 2.5 gallons per ft2 -microscopic marine plants spread in a thin coat over filter bags or septa
range of nephelometer turbidity units in a pool (NSF standard) not exceed .5 and if it gets to 1 it must return to .5 within 8 hours
low ph concerns faster chlorine loss, easier formation of chloramines, corrosionof equpment
high ph concerns scale formatin, cloudy water, increase of hydrogen ions
alkalinity range 80-120 ppm calcium carbonate
raise alkalinity by adding sodium bicarbonate (baking soda)
combination of chlorine and ammonia "combined chlorine" - don't add ammonia to retain residual chlorine on hot days
free chlorine plus combined chlorine = total redisual chlorine
total residual chlorine concentration 2.0-2.5 but chloramines cause eye irritation and chlorine smell
free chlorine concentration that should be maintained .4-1.0ppm alkalinity for spas
spa water harness 100-400 ppm
pool system turnover rate every 6 hours
rate of filtration for vacuum diatomite filter 1-2 gpm, ft2
chemicals used for disinfection chlorine, chloro-iso-cyanurates, bromine and iodine
gutters and skimmers must receive minimum of 60%
what does cyanuric acid additive do? stabilizes residual chlorine
adding sodium bicarbonate will do what to pH? raise it
add soda ash to raise pH
best control of swimmers itch is to add copper sulfate
childrens pools should be recirculated every 60 minutes
main drain should have a diameter at LEAST how many times larger than the discharge pipe? 4 times
pump is protected by strainer as it catches large particles
cartridge filter rate up to 3 gallons per minute per ft2 of filter area
stabilizer from chlorine products for outdoor pools cyanuric acid
bromine can be testd by using free chlorine test and multiplying by 2.5
what is hypochlorous acid (HOCL) available in the water? the sanitizer and is most effective at lower pH values
Saturation Indes formula pH = temperature factor + calcium hardness factor + alkalinity factor - 12.1
SI between +0.5 and -0.5 then: the water is balanced
SI greater than +0.5 water will form scale and clog pipes and hazy water appearance SI lwss than _0.5
total alkalinity range 6-=180 ppm
calcium hardness range 150-400ppm
pH 7.2-7.8
cyanuric acid 25-100 ppm
combined chlorine less than 1.0
super chlorination (shocking) removing chloramines by incresing chlorine level (increases hypochlorous acid)
chloramines form when ______ compounds are present ammonia
cause of disease in pools pseudomonas aeruginosa, crypto and abrasions by mycobacterium marinum
Created by: sanitarianpankey
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