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Staphylococcus aureus (Staphyloccal gastroenteritis)- found in humans particularly in the hair, nose and throat, as well as in infected cuts. Transfer to food when touched and not washing their hands. Cooking the food can not destroy the toxins. Symptoms are Nausea, vomiting and retching, ab. cramps. Linked to food that requires handling during prepping. Such as salads containing TCS food (egg, tuna, chicken, macaroni), deli meat
Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolytics (Vibrio gastroenteritis)-found in the waters where shellfish are harvested. Grow rapidly when in danger zone temp. People w/chronic cond. who become sick, could lead to death. Symptoms- diarrhea, cramps w/nausea, low grade fever and chills. Linked to oysters from contaminated water.
VIRUSES Hepatitis A- is mainly found in the feces of people.The virus is often transferred to food or equip. when handlers have feces on fingers. A person may not show symptoms for wks.but can be very infectious. Cooking will NOT destroy hepatitis A Symptoms- fever (mild), general weakness, nausea, ab pain and jaundice (appears later) Linked from Ready-to-eat foods, shellfish from contaminated water.
Norovirus (Norovirus gastroenteritis)- is often trasferred to food when infected food handlers touch food or equipment with fingers that have feces on them. It is VERY contagious, within a few hrs. after eating infected food. Symptoms- vomiting, diarrhea, nausea, ab. cramps. Linked from Ready-to-eat food, shellfish from contaminated water.
PARASITES Anisakis simplex (anisakiasis)- from eating raw or undercooked fish containing parasite. Symptoms- tingling in throat, coughing up worms! Linked to Herring, Cod, Halibut, Mackerel, Pacific salmon. (purchase sushi-grade fish that has been frozen to the correct time-temp requirements.)
Cryptosporidium parvum (Cryptosporidisis)- found in feces of infected people. Day-care and medical communities have been frequent locations of person-to-person. Symptoms- (will be more severe in people w/ weakened immune systems) watery diarrhea, ab.cramps, nausea, weight loss. Linked-contaminated water, produce.
Giardia duodenalis (Giardisis)- can be found in feces of infected persons. Can be transfer to food when touched by fingers w/feces on them. Symptoms- initially fever, later diarrhea, ab.cramps, nausea. Linked by incorrectly treated water, produce.
Cyclospora cayetanensis (Cyclosporiasis)- has been associated w/produce irrigated or washed w/contaminated water. As well as found in feces of infected persons. Food handlers should be excluded from operations when they have diarrhea. Symptoms- Nausea, cramps, mild fever, diarrhea alternating w/constipation, loss of appetite. Linked- incorrectly treated water, produce such as berries, lettuce, or basil.
TOXINS Histamine (Scombroid poisoning)- occurs when high levels of histamine in scombroid and other species of fish are eaten. When fish are time-temp abused, bacteria on fish make the toxin. Can NOT be destroyed by freezing, cooking, smoking or curing. Symptoms- initially- reddening of the face and neck, sweating, headache, burning or tingling in mouth or throat. Possibly later- diarrhea, vomiting. Linked- tuna, Bonito, Mackerel, Mahimahi.
Ciguatoxin (Ciguatera fish poisoning)- found in some marine algae. Toxin builds up in certain fish when they eat smaller fish that have eaten the toxic algae. It CAN'T be detected by smell or taste. It is NOT eliminated by cooking or freezing the fish. Symptoms- last months/years depend on how severe.Reversal of hot/cold sensations, nausea,vomiting,tingling fingers,lips,toes, joint/muscle pain.Linked-predatory tropical reef fish. In Barracuda, Grouper, Jacks, and Snapper.
Saxitoxin (Paralytic shellfish poisoning)- shellfish can become contaminated as they filter toxic algae in water. Get sick when they eat these shellfish. Toxin can NOT be smelled or tasted.Can NOT be destroyed by cooking/freezing. Poss. death may result. Symptoms- numbness,tingling in mouth, face, arms,legs. dizziness, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea. Linked- shellfish in colder waters (Pacific, New England coasts)- in clams, mussels, oysters, scallops.
Brevetoxin (Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning)- same as Saxitoxin Symptoms- same as Saxitoxin except no nausea, but has reversal of hot/cold sensations. Linked- shellfish found in warmer waters (west coast FL, Gulf of MX)- Clams, mussels, oysters.
Domoic Acid (Amnesic shellfish poisoning)- when they eat shellfish. Symptoms- Initially vomiting, diarrhea, ab pain, possibily later have- confusion, memory loss, disorientation, seizure, coma. Linked- found in coastal waters (Pacific northwest, East coast of Canada)- Clams, mussels, oysters, scallops.
FAT TOM Food, Acidity, Temperature - Time, Oxygen, Moisture.
Temperature of Final Rinse for Sanitizing 180 F
Temperature To Kill Salmonella 165 F - all reheats, ground poultry, chicken, turkey, stuffed meats, microwave foods
Temperature to Kill E-Coli 155 F - ground beef, ground pork, ham (cured meat), roasts, minced/chopped fish, shelled eggs HELD for service
Temperature to Kill Parasites & Salmonella 145 F - Pork (chops, steaks), beef (chops, steaks), veal (chops, steaks), lamb (chops, steaks), fish, roasts for pork, beef, veal, lamb (4 mins)), shelled eggs for IMMEDIATE service.
Lowest Hot Held Temp for TDZ 135 F - Vegetables, starches
Created by: pugga04