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68WM6 AP 3 Terms


ABO Blood Groups A system of grouping blood based on the presence or absence of two antigens
Adaptive Immunity Protective mechanism that provide specific protection against certain bacteria and toxins (B and T lymphocytes)
Agglutinate Antibodies causing antigens to clump or stick together (in blood when wrong transfusion occurs)
Albumin Plasma proteins synthesized in the liver that are the primary components of osmotic pressure in the bloodstream
Allergic Reaction Hypersensitive immune reaction of relatively harmless environmental antigens
Anemia A condition that results from too few erythrocytes or hemoglobin
Angina Pectoris Pain in the chest (due to and embolism in the cardiac vessels)
Antibodies Soluble, globular proteins that directly attack antigens, activate complement, or stimulate changes that prevent the spread of pathogens
Antigens A chemical compound attached to a cell surface which, if not recognized by the lymphatic system, elicits an immune responsef
Aorta The major systemic artery that receives blood from the left ventricle
Aplastic anemia (Blood disorder characterizes by low erythrocyte count) from destruction of myeloid tissue in bone marrow
Arteriole A small branch of an artery that communicates with a capillary network
Artery Thick-walled elastic vessels that always carry blood away from the heart
Artificial Active Immunity Active immunity acquired by vaccination
Artificial Passive immunity Immunity by receiving antibodies
Atrium Chamber of the heart that receives blood
Augmented Lead ECG leads between 3 limbs measure change in electric potential on a frontal plane
AV bundle Fibers in the heart that relay a nerve impulse from the AV node to the ventricles (bundle of His)
AV node A small mass of specialized cardiac muscle tissue that is part of the conduction system of the heart
Bilirubin Pigment that results from destruction of hemoglobin
Bipolar Lead The electrical connection of two electrodes to a recording instrument and to two different places on the body, such as the chest and a limb.
Buffy coat Thin layer of white blood cells and platelets located between red blood cells and platelets in between erythrocytes and blood plasma in a centrifuged blood sample
Capillary A small blood vessel that connects an arteriole and a venule ()
Capillary Blood Pressure Blood pressure found in the capillaries
Carbaminohemoglobin The compound formed by the union of carbon dioxide with hemoglobin
Cardiac cycle A series of myocardial contractions and relaxations that constitute a complete heartbeat
Cardiac output The volume of blood per minute that the heart pumps
Central Venus Pressure Venus blood pressure within the right atrium that influences pressure in the large peripheral veins
Coagulation an effective hemostatic mechanism that causes blood clots through the use of clotting factors
Colloid Osmotic Pressure the pressure resulting from water moving toward an area of a higher concentration of a solute
Deoxyhemoglobin hemoglobin not combined with oxygen, formed when oxyhemoglobin releases its oxygen to the tissues
Diastole Phase of the cardiac cycle when a heart chamber wall relaxes
Electrical event The electrical conduction of the heart as visualized on the EKG
Embolism Obstruction of a blood vessel by foreign matter carried in the bloodstream
Embolus a dislodged blood clot that is moving through the blood vessels
Endocardium Inner lining of the heart chambers
Eosinophils Lymphocytes that release chemicals that combat worms
Epicardium The visceral portion of the pericardium on the surface of the heart
Erythroblastosis Fetalis Disease that may develop when an Rh negative mother gives birth to an Rh positive infant causing the mother to become exposed and produce antibodies endangering future fetuses.
Erythrocytes biconcave disks, also known as red blood cells, used to transport gases
Erythropoietin a hormone that is secreted by the kidney and liver to control rate of erythrocyte production
Fibrin insoluble threads of protein that form a meshwork at sites of injury that entrap blood cells and platelets forming blood clots
Fibrinogen a large protein synthesized in the liver that functions in blood coagulation
Gamma Globulin IGG antibodies (most common)
Globulin three types of proteins synthesized in the liver and lymphatic tissue and are important in the transport of lipids and fat-soluble vitamins and immunity
Globulin three types of proteins synthesized in the liver and lymphatic tissue and are important in the transport of lipids and fat-soluble vitamins and immunity
Granulocytes Leukocytes containing a lobed nucleus (neutrophils, basophils, monocytes, eosinophils)
HDL Good cholesterol (smallest allowing triglycerides to be transported in the blood stream) (high density lipoprotein)
Hematocrit the percentage of formed elements in a volume of whole blood Erythrocytes Leukocytes Platelets
Hemoglobin oxygen carrying portion of the erythrocyte
Hemorrhagic Anemia Anemia from blood loss
Hemostasis the processes responsible for stopping blood loss when a blood vessel is damaged
Heparin Prevents coagulation
Hepatic Portal Circulation Delivers blood from the intestines - filters for nutrients and toxins - and delivers it to the heart via inferior vena cava
Humoral Immunity Cell mediated immunity involving lymphocytes (B and T cells)
Hydrostatic Pressure Force of fluid pushing against a surface (blood pressure)
Hypotension Abnormally low blood pressure
Hypertension Abnormally high blood pressure
Innate Immunity Non-specific immunity - immediate generic protection against pathogens (macrophages, neutrophils, inflammation etc.)
Ischemia Deficiency of blood in a body part
LDL Bad cholesterol (low density lipoprotein) enables transport of multiple fat molecules in the blood stream
Leukemia Blood cancer characterized by cancerous increase in leukocytes
Leukocytes five types of cells, also known as white blood cells, that protect against disease Neutrophils Eosinophils Basophils Monocytes Lymphocytes
Leukocytosis Abnormally high white blood cell numbers in blood
Leukopenia Abnormally low white blood cell numbers in blood
Lipoprotein proteins that combine with lipids to allow transport of lipids through the bloodstream, Phospholipids with triglyceride core.
Lymph Specialized fluid formed in the tissue spaces that returns excess fluid and protein molecules to the blood
Lymph nodes Performs biological filtration of lymph on its way to the circulatory system
Lymphatic Capillaries Tiny blind-ended tubes distributes in the tissue spaces
Lymphatic Pathways Pathways involving lymph vessels throughout the body
Lymphocytes Specialized white blood cells (T and B cells) involved with specific immunity
Mechanical Event The muscular contraction of the heart that sends blood out of the heart
Mitral valve Heart valve between left atrium and left ventricle also known as the bicuspid valve
Monocytes Leukocyte that differentiates into macrophages upon arrival at site of infection
Myocardial Infarction A MI is the irreversible necrosis of heart muscle secondary to prolonged ischemia
Myocardium Muscle tissue of the heart
Natural Active Immunity Involves the production of antibodies (humoral immunity)
Natural Passive Immunity Antibodies from a mother passed to a fetus
Neutrophil Leukocyte that releases oxidizing agents to destroy pathogens as well as engulf them
P - Wave Deflection on an ECG that occurs with depolarization of the atria
Pacemaker Mass of specialized muscle tissue that controls the rhythm of the heartbeat AV and SA
Pernicious Anemia Deficiency of red blood cells resulting from a lack of vitamin B12
Plasma clear, straw-colored liquid portion of whole blood which contains acomplex mixture of chemicals
Plasma Proteins Proteins circulating in the blood plasma that contribute to hydrostatic and osmotic pressures (colloidal pressure) (albumen)
Polycythemia Excessive number of red blood cells
Precordial Lead record the electric potential changes in the heart in a cross sectional plane
Prothrombin A protein present in normal blood that is required for blood clotting
Prothrombin activator A protein formed by clotting factors from damaged tissue cells and platelets that converts prothrombin into thrombin (platelets)
Purkinje Fibers Specialized cells located in the walls of the ventricles that relay nerve impulses from the AV node to the ventricles causing myocardial contraction
QRS complex Deflection on an ECG that occurs as a result of depolarization of the ventricles
Rh Blood Group a system of grouping blood based on the presence of the Rh antigen
SA node The hearts pacemaker where the impulse conduction of the heart normally starts: located in the wall of the right atrium near the opening of the superior vena cava
Serum Blood plasma without its clotting factors but still containing antibodies
Spleen Larges lymphoid organ that filters blood and destroys inadequate erythrocytes and reabsorbs iron from hemoglobin (serves as a blood reservoir)
Stroke volume The volume of blood that each ventricle discharges in a heartbeat
Systemic circulation Involves movement of blood from the left ventricle throughout the body and back to the right atrium
Systole The phase of the cardiac cycle when a heart chamber wall contracts
Thrombocyte cell fragments, as known as platelets, that close breaks in damaged blood vessels and initiate the formation of blood clots
Thrombopoietin a hormone responsible for the initiation the formation of thrombocytes
Thrombosis Formation or clot in a blood vessel causing partial or full blockage of flow
Thrombus a blood clot that abnormally forms in a blood vessel
Thymus "educates" T-lymphocytes
Urea Nitrogen containing waste product
Vasoconstriction A decrease in the diameter of a blood vessel
Vasodilatation An increase in the diameter of a blood vessel
Vasospasm Blood vessel spasm
Vein A vessel that carries blood toward the heart
Vena Cava The large vein that conveys deoxygenated blood to the right atrium
Ventricle Chamber of the heart that contract to send blood the lungs and body
VLDL Produced by the liver (enables fat molecules to be transported in the blood)
Whole Blood the combination of all fluid and components in the blood
Created by: sakal