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BSC2085 EXAM 1

Palpation Feeling a structure with the hands
Auscultation Listening to natural sounds made by the body
Percussion Tapping a body part and feeling for abnormal resistance
Dissection The careful cutting and separation of tissues to reveal internal anatomy
Gross Anatomy Structures seen with the naked eye
Histology (microscopic anatomy) Observing thinly sliced specimens under the microscope
Ultrastructure Fine details (molecular level) revealed by electron microscope
Inductive Method of Study: Numerous observations until confident enough to draw generations/predictions. Anatomy is a product of this.
Hypothetico-Deductive Method a researcher uses to ask a question and formulates a hypothesis. Most physiological knowledge obtained using this method.
Hypothesis Possible answer to a question.
Evolution Change in genetic composition of a population of an organism
Natural Selection Principle theory of how evolution works. Ex. Opposable thumbs to grasp that are highest priority
Homeostasis Body's ability to detect change and maintain stable internal conditions despite environmental changes
Anatomical Position Standard frame of reference. Palms face anterior.
Sagittal Vertically through body. Left and right portions
Median (midsagittal) Equal halfs
Frontal (coronal) Extends vertically, but perpendicular. Anterior and posterior portions.
Transverse (horizontal) Horizontally. Superior and Inferior portions.
Axial Portion of body: head, neck, trunk
Appendicular Portion of body: upper and lower limbs
Proximal/Distal Closer to point of attachment/Further from point of origin Describes anatomy of upper and lower limbs.
Arm Upper part of limb between shoulder and elbow
Leg Part of lower limb between knee and ankle
Chemical Element Simplest form of matter to have unique chemical properties
Atomic Number Element identification. Number of protons
Nucleus Center of Atom. Protons and Neutrons. Surrounded by clouds of electrons.
Polar Covalent Bonds Holds atoms in water molecules together
Nonpolar Covalent Bond Strongest of all chemical bonds. Carbon atoms bind to other carbon atoms.
Hydrophilic Substance that dissolve in water
Hydrophobic Substance that do not dissolve in water
Amphiphilic Large molecules that are both Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic regions.
Protein is a polymor of amino acids
Enzymes Proteins that serve as biological catalysts. Allow rapid reactions.
Polysaccharide is a polymor of onosaccharides
Glucose (blood sugar) is a polymor of Monosaccharide
Sucrose (table sugar) and lactose (milk sugar) are a polymor of Disaccharides
Three polysaccharides of interest Glycogen, Starch, Cellulose
Nucleic Acid is a polymor of Nucleotides
Cholesterol Liquid with 17 of its carbon atoms arranged in four rings. Natural product of body. Important component of cell membrames, Does more good than harm.
Cells Smallest unit of organism that carry out basic life functions.
Modern Cell Theory Organism's structure and functions are ultimately due to cells.
Diffusion Net movement of particles from high concentration to lower concentration. No energy (passive process)
Active transport Transports solute up to concentration point. Energy comes from ATP.
Examples of Endocytosis Phagocytosis, pinocytosis, receptor-mediated endocytosis
Vesicular Transport Process (endocytosis and exocytosis) Always requires energy
Symport Carries two or more solutes through membrane in same direction
Antiport, examples Carries two or more solutes through opposite directions. Sodium-potassium pump
Uniport One solute carried at a time
Endoplasmic Reticulum Produces phospholipids and proteins of plasma membrane
Golgi Complex Conjugates protein and lipids with carbohydrates to make glycoproteins and gylcolipids
Lysosomes Digestion and disposal of worn-out organelles
Nucleus Cells control center and safety house of DNA
Mitochondria "Powerhouses" of cell. Energy extraction and transferred to ATP.
Organelles NOT surrounded by membranes Ribosomes, centrosome, centriles, basal bodies
Microvilli (Surface extension) Extension of plasma membrane that serve to increase cell's surface area. Best for cell absorption.
Cilia Hair-like processes. Present in every human cell. (Surface extension) Found in waves, but less widespread. Certain parts of body found.
Flagella (Surface extension) Found only in sperm.
Gylcocalyx External to plasma membrane, fuzzy coat
Carbohydrate moieties ...Gylcocalyx consists of. Chemically unique, except identical twins. Identification tag to distinguish healthy cells from foreign, diseased cells.
98% of the molecules in the plasma membranes are.. Lipids
75% of the liquids are... Phospoliquids. Arrange in bilayer
2% of molecules in plasma membrane are.. Proteins.
Membrane protein functions? Receptors, enzymes, ion channels
Hypertonic (Solution) High concentration on non-permeating solutes than intracellular fluid. Less water.
Hypotonic Lower concentration of non-permeating solutes than the inter-cellular fluid. More water.
DNA is a polymer of... 4 different Nucleotides. Each unique base. A (adenine), T(thymine), C(cytosine), G (guanine).
Law of complementary base pairing. Each unique base. A (adenine), T(thymine), C(cytosine), G (guanine). A-T and C-G are base pairs.
Double helix of DNA is held together by.. Hydrogen Bonds (between base pairs)
RNA differ from DNA? DNA: two nucleotide chains, thymine (T), irreplaceable and safe in nucleus, deoxyribose [sugar] RNA: one nucleotide chain, uracil (U), disposable and moves between nucleus and cytoplasm, ribose
Involved in producing proteins? mRNA (messenger- transcribes genetic code), rRNA (ribosomal- translates code for protein), tRNA (transfer- bounds amino acids together)
Sequence of 3 DNA nucleotides that stands for.. 1 amin acid called base triplet
A 3-base sequence in mRNA is called.. codon
Gene Information-containing DNA segment for production of RNA. Turned on and off from day to day as their products are needed or not.
DNA codes only for the production of... Proteins
Location of particular gene on a chromosome Locus
Homologous Chromosomes Pair of chromosomes, each inherited from each parent. Same gene at same locus.
Alleles Different forms of gene. Produce alternative forms of a trait. One dominant, one recessive.
Codominant alleles, example Both phenotypically expressed. Ex. ABO blood type
Sex-linked traits, examples Carried in X or Y chromosome. Inherited by one sex more than the other. Men and color blindness (located on X chromosome)
Created by: MTmind