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APGov Unit 1 Ch. 1

Constitutional Underpinnings

QuestionAnswer
Government in which citizens vote on laws and select officials directly. Direct democracy
Government in which the people elect those who govern and pass laws; also called a republic. Representative democracy
A government that enforces recognized limits on those who govern and allows the voice of the people to be heard through free, fair, and relatively frequent elections. Constitutional democracy
Government by the people, both directly or indirectly, with free and frequent elections. Democracy
The set of arrangements, including checks and balances, federalism, separation of powers, rule of law, due process, and a bill of rights, that requires our leaders to listen, think, bargain, and explain before they act or make laws. Constitutionalism
The idea that the rights of the nation are supreme over the rights of the individuals who make up the nation. Statism
– The idea that a just government must derive its powers from the consent of the people it governs. Popular consent
Governance according to the expressed preferences of the majority. Majority rule
The candidate or party that wins more than half the votes cast in an election. Majority
Candidate or party with the most votes cast in an election, not necessarily more than half. Plurality
A consistent pattern of beliefs about political values and the role of government. Ideology
Government by religious leaders, who claim divine guidance. Theocracy
The first governing document of the confederated states drafted in 1777, ratified in 1781, and replaced by the present Constitution in 1789. Articles of Confederation
A convention held in September 1786 to consider problems of trade and navigation, attended by five states and important because it issued the call to Congress and the states for what became the Constitutional Convention. Annapolis Convention
– The convention in Philadelphia, May 25 to September 17, 1787, that debated and agreed upon the Constitution of the United States. Constitutional Convention
Rebellion of farmers in western Massachusetts in 1786-1787, protesting mortgage foreclosures. It highlighted the need for a strong national government. Shays’ Rebellion
The principle of a two-house legislature. Bicameralism
Initial proposal at the Constitutional Convention for a strong central government with a bicameral legislature dominated by the big states. Virginia Plan
Proposal at the Constitutional Convention for a central government with a single-house legislature in which each state would be represented equally. New Jersey Plan
Compromise agreement by states at the Constitutional Convention for a bicameral legislature with a lower house in which representation would be based on population and an upper house in which each state would have two senators. Connecticut Compromise
Compromise between northern and southern states at the Constitutional Convention that three-fifths of the slave population would be counted for determining direct taxation and representation in the House of Representatives. Three-fifths compromise
Supporters of ratification of the Constitution and of a strong central government. Federalists
Opponents of ratification of the Constitution and of a strong central government, generally. Anti-federalists
Essays promoting ratification of the Constitution, published anonymously by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison in 1787 and 1788. The Federalist Papers
Created by: jperez02