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hazardous materials

chapter 7 hazardous materials

biologic hazards can cause infectin or disease in persons, plants or animals
5 categories of biologic hazards viral, rickettsial/chlamidial, bacterial, fungal and parasitic
3 types of harmful radiation alpha, beta and gamma rays
ionizing radiation alpha, beta and gamma rays harm living organisms
chemical hazards solubility, density, vapor pressure, vapor density, boiling point, condensation point, melting/freezing point
ld50 extremely toxic <1mg/kg
LD50 highly toxic 1-50 mg/kg
EPA level A of PPE highest level, including
category a description and examples easily spread person to person, little to no immunity (anthrax, botulism, plague, small pox, tularemia)
category b description and examples moderately easily spread, low death rate, no immunity (burcellosis, perfringens, ricin, q fever-coxiella burnetti, staphylococcal enterotoxin b, typhus
category c easily available, spread and produced nipah and hantavirus
anthrax-bacillus anthracis disease of herbivores, forms spores, alive in soil and hides
cutaneaus anthrax scabs on hands
inhalation anthrax fever, cough, fever and shock
gastrointenstinal anthrax rare, cough, fever and shock
small pox- Variola major eradicated since 77, person to person and fomites, aerosol
signs and symptoms of smallpox sudden fever, then rash, starts on face and arms
plague Yersinia pestis found in rodents and fleas, transmitted by fleas and airborne aerosolized
plague symptoms fever, headache, chest pain as pneumonia sets in
plague protection airborne protection and isolation until 48 hrs after antibiotics
ricin- protein toxin castor oil, inhaled or ingensted, not person to person
symptoms of ricin inhallation 4-8 hrs of inhalation, can't breathe, fever, then low blood pressure and 72 hrs later death (environmental assessment = full PPE))
staphylococcal enterotoxin B ` aerosolization, not transmittable person to person
staph enterotoxin b symptoms (ingestion and inhalation and precautions) nausea, cramps, dearrhea, chest pain, standard precautions
hantavirus carried by rodents, direct contact to non intact skin and inhalation of dust not person to person
hantavirus symptoms flue like, respiratory distress
3 routes into body ingestion, absorption, inhalation
RD50 response dose at which 50% of test population has reproducible response
irritants cause: pain, swelling, blistering, GI :ammonia, chlorine
asphyxiants displace oxygen, methane, chabon monoxide
CNS depressants dysfunctino of CNS, trichloroethane, nitrous, alcohol, narcotics
systemic toxicants impact specific organs systems, carcinotens,teratogens, mutagens
carbon tetrachloride causes liver and kidney damage
simple asphyxiants cause hypoxia where you can't get enough oxygen.
example of asphyxiants like altitude sickness causes euphoria, headache, nausea, convulsion and death
chemical asphyxiants cause anoxia (starving for Ox at cellular level)
chemical asphyxiants that cause destruction of red blood cells arsine and phosphine gases
cham asphyxiants that cause respiratory and CNS depression hydrogen sulfide
chem asphyxiants that interfere with ability to connect and transfer oxygen nitrate
upper respiratory irritants Nox, chlorine, fluorine, bromine, ozone, SO2, HCL, NH4
Lower respiratory irritants Carbonyl bromide, nitrogen dioxide, carbonyl chloride (phosgene)
dusts that cause fibrosisa asbestos, silica, coal dust
biocides chemicals that kill living things
TSD traning requirements 24 hours
water disinfection recipe in an emergence 1 teaspoon per 10 gallon and let set for 30 mins
Created by: sanitarianpankey
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